Monthly Archives: February 2014

On the Nature of the Chinggis Khan’s Tomb and Its Cultural Connotation

By Burinbatu (Inner Mongolia University, China)

ABSTRACT

Today’s Chinggis Khan’s Tomb is originally called as the Eight White Ger or House. Because of the name of the Eight White Ger changed into Chinggis Khan’s Tomb, there are many misunderstandings about the nature of its Onggon Situgen or Spirits. Hence, its cultural connotations also became unclear, too. There is an urgent saving and a deep research is needed for the Culture of the Chinggis Khan’s Tomb. There are some clear notes about the Chinggis Khan’s Tomb or Eight White Ger in the Altan Tobchi or the Golden History of Chinggis Khan, written as: taking the great Khan to the place of ancestral mausoleum, the eternal remains was stayed there and Khan Jaisangs were put as Tolg-a stove and the remains were made as the Spirits. And built the eternal Eight White Ger, then, they made a false poster to the whole empire. In fact, only the clothes and tents and a sock were buried here, but the real remains, some said that buried in Burkhan Khaldun Mount, some said that buried in back of the Altai Khan Mount, or in front of the Khendei Khan Mount, a place called Yekhe Udeg.

This note should be the clues for Chinggis Khan’s Tomb studies. A right and deep understanding to the note, is a key to the research on the nature of Chinggis Khan’s Tomb. This article will talk on the base of the very note.

First, lexical and cultural analyzes and context word meaning researches are made to the each word. For example, what is the “real remains”? What is the “eternal remains of the whole”? What is the “eternal Hadagasun or column of the whole”? What is the relation between the “real remains” and the “eternal remains of the whole”? What is the relation between the “Spirits of the whole ” and  the “eternal Hadagasun or column of the whole”? I will give more reasonable answers to these questions.

Second, I did a comparative study between the materials and habits of Today’s Chinggis Khan’s Tomb and historical notes. For example, natures of the Golden Sacrifice History of Chinggis Khan, the Tugel of Chinggis Khan’s sacrifice,  Belge-yin Jigsagal and the Darhad tribe, etc.

Third, I did a comparative study between the Chinggis Khan’s Tomb Culture and sacrificial culture of other nationalities. For example, differences between the Chinggis Khan’s Tomb or the Eight White Ger and Han Chinese Ancestral Temple; differences between the condolence activities for Chinggis Khan by Mongols and the condolence activities for their great people by other nationalities.

(translated from Mongolian into English by Delger)

source: http://bdelger.blog.163.com

A Brief Introduction to Inner Mongolia University Library

Inner Mongolia University Library was founded in October 14, 1957. It is an academic library of the first university which has been established in minority area of new China. Hence a new page of academic library causes of China minority area had been opened. For fifty years, with the endeavor of several generations of grand librarians and their enterprising spirits, the library’s function and scope has been enlarged, the idea for library running has been innovated. The library constructed a book collecting system which has national and local characteristics, built a service platform with modern management, formed an excellent environment of network service and reading, and also realized the spanning of traditional library into modern library. The library is playing an incommutability function to the teaching and researching service. And the library is also playing an important part to the college document integrating construction in the Autonomous Region.

(translated from Chinese into English by Delger)

source: http://bdelger.blog.163.com

Category: Others 1,492 views

Mongolian Studies Yearbook 2006

Contents

Mongolian Studies in China

A Review on Mongolian Language Studies (2006)…………………………………Badmaodsar ()

An Outline of Normalization and Standardization and Informatization of Mongolian Language (2006)…Heshigdureng ()

A Review on Mongolian History Research on Mongol Yuan Empire (2006)………..Shidurgu ()

A Review on Research of Mongolian History of Ming and Qing Dynasties (2006)…Hurcha  Zhao Xuxia  Serguleng ()

A Review on Research of History of the Northern Nationalities (2006)………….Tao Yukun ()

A Review on Mongolian Philosophy and Social Thought History Studies…………Bao Aimei ()

A Review on Research of Mongolian Law History (2006)………………………Naranchogtu ()

A Review on Mongolian Ancient and Modern Literature Studies (2006)…………..Ba.Suhe ()

A Review on Research of Mongolian Economics and Society (2006)…………Oronchi  Yu Ying  Oyuntana ()

A Review on Research of Traditional Mongolian Music (2006)………Durashaltu  Hugjiltu ()

A Review on Research of Antiquities and Archeology of the Northern Nationalities (2006)…Zhang Wenping

A Review on Mongolian Folk Custom Studies (2006)……………………………..Urgumal ()

A Review on Nationalities of Dagur and Ewengki and Orchon Studies (2006)……Yi Song ()

A Review on Mongolian Religion Studies (2006)…………………………………..Oyunhuar

A Review on Mongolian Education Studies (2006)…Wang Fenglei  Yu Xiaomei and Others ()

 

Mongolian Studies Abroad

A Compendium of Research on the Secret History of Mongols Abroad…………A. Shonghor ()

The Betrayal of Nayan at the Great Mongol Empire…………………[South Korea] In Ensug ()

Cross-century Educational Research Achievements of Mongolia……………….Wang Fengle ()

 

Forum on Nomadic Culture

On the Position and Function of Nomadic Culture in Chinese Culture History………Xiao Ke ()

A Review on the Third Forum on Nomadic Culture of Chinese Inner Mongolia……Jin Hai ()

 

Century Retrospect

A Review on Mongolian News Communication Studies (1949-2006) ……..Togtohu and Others ()

A Retrospect on New Century Mongolian Literature Commentary……………Che.Jirgal ()

A Review on Mongolian Marriage Convenance Studies……………………….Honggorjula ()

A Review on Mongolian Publication Culture at Qing Dynasty…………………Bao Shan  ()

50 Years of Mongolian Language Studies of Inner Mongolia University………Badmaodsar ()

A Survey on Western Mongolian History Research in China…………………..Tuna ()

 

Monographs

An Outline to Mongolian Danjuur Scripture……………………………………A. Shonghor ()

An Analyze on Present Situation of Development Process and Theory Research on Regional National Autonomy…E. Urgen ()

 

Academic Information

A Summary to the Ninth International Mongolian Studies Conference………Tian Li ()

A Review on the International Conference on Chinggis Khan and the 800th Anniversary of Great Mongol Empire Establishment…………………….Zhou Jinghong ()

An Outline of Whole China Conference on Arzhai Cave Culture……………A. Shonghor ()

A Review and Prospect on Hasar Studies…………………………………….Bo.Saijirahu ()

A Summary to Achievements of Mongolian Information Processing Technology (Project)……Garudi ()

The Project of Mongolian Corpus Linguistics………………………………..D.Bagatur ()

A Brief Introduction to the Information Center for Mongolian Studies of the Nationality Studies of the State Education Committee of P. R. China………………………………Delger ()

 

Book Review and Information

Reading of Suuhan Gereltu’s a Query on the Totems of the North and the Northeast Nomadic and Hunting Nationalities………………………………………………………………….Bao Yu ()

A Comment on Professor Ba.Suhe’s the Interpretation: History of Development of Mongolian Literature……Liu Jisheng  Bolog ()

 

Chronicles

Chronicles of Mongolian Studies………………………………………Compiled by M. Sodon ()

 

Indexes of Mongolian Studies

An Index of Mongolian Studies of 2006 (in Mongolian)……………………………M. Sodon ()

An Index of Mongolian Studies of 2006 (in Chinese)…………………………………Erdeni ()

(translated from Chinese into English by Delger)

source: http://bdelger.blog.163.com

An Archeological Study on the Northern Nationalities and China Ulanganhada Culture

By Xuelian

Abstract(A dissertation of M.A degree)

Key Words: the New Stone Age, the Northern Nationalities, Chinese Ulaganhada Culture, Archeological Discoveries Jade Articles, Shamanism

 

It is very important to do some archeological study on the historical relics of the tribes and clans or nationalities in northeast China and northeast Asia. In 1935, the Ulaganhada Culture was discovered at the back of Ulaganhada Mount of Ulaganhada City of Inner Mongolia, China. And in 1954, the relic site called as Ulaganhada Culture. Then, many scientific summaries and studies have been done on the archeological discoveries which related to the New Stone Age by scholars both in China and abroad.

This article was based on the research achievements of archeological discoveries of jade articles of Ulaganhada Culture in China and abroad, some of the jade articles are noticed as religious tools which were used in Shaman activities or religious ceremonies when Shamans were contacting with their spiritual gods, according to the natural geological situation, life style, custom, beliefs and cultural psychology of the Chinese northern clans, tribes and nationalities, a new study is done on the very subject from the ideas of statistics, history, ethnic study, religious research, ecological geology and archeological methods.

The jade articles are also recognized as burial artifacts for diseased elders or shamans, thus funeral objects of Ulagangaha Culture was originated from the old cultural psychology and social custom of northern nationalities and I gave these ideas in a very progressive research.

Shamanism was a very popular belief of ancient Altaic nationalities. In Shamanism, people believe that all things of the universe having soul, and the universe is divided into three stories, such as upper world, middle world and under world, the upper world refer to god, the middle world refer to human, the under world refer to hell. And the Shamans are envoys between these worlds and were worshiped as enchanters who healing diseases or bringing happiness to the human world.

The nationalities who related to Shaman belief are some of Altaic Nationalities in China, such as Manchu, Ewenki, Orchon, Hezhe, Sibege, Uygur, Khasag, Kirgis, Mongol and Dagur etc. The primitive characters of Shamanism are inherited through the life and psychological history and some Shaman traditions and preserved until today. In fact, the ancient nationalities had been settled in northern China, as written down in some historical books of both in Mongolian and Chinese, are considered as ancestors of the northern China nationalities today. These nationalities were invaded into the south and built empires in different historical times. In this condition, the northern nationalities become one sometimes, hence formed a new culture and religion which combined with the original one and adopted some aspects from the south. And the special characteristic of Shamanism of the northern Chinese nationalities differs from the world Shamanism and the era.

The Shamanists said, the northeast and middle Asia is homeland of Shamanism and original relation with nationalities of Tungus Family Language, Turk Family Language and their religious cultural tradition in these areas. There are also many similarities among the basic ideas of Shaman beliefs, Shaman custom and ceremonies. With these characteristics, Shamanism in China has a special value in the world Shamanism history.

Based on the archeological discoveries which related to pre-historical local culture of Chinese northern nationalities, it is having a great realistic significance to study ancient Shamanism, in my thought. The reasons are: first, there is a Shaman performing in Ulaganhada Culture from ancient time and there is still left some characters and heritages in religious life of Northern nationalities today. Second, the jade articles from Ulaganhada Culture were tools of daily life and used as some special communicational tools between god and Shamans by them. According to hundreds of jade articles have discovered from the burial place in Ulaganhada Culture Area, those are maybe their daily articles which used in their life time of the diseased people. A cultural and custom study shows that burial artifacts as jade, coral and pearl articles were popular in ancient time and there still has this kind of traditions in some areas today. The tombs that have jade artifacts in Ulganhada Culture were placed on the mountains and hills have an altitude of 550-650 meters and buried with stone heaps in some square or circle stone gardens. It is interesting that there have only found jade articles as burial artifact but no porcelains and stone tools. In the time of tribal era, the head of the tribe also acted as a Shaman among Altaic nationalities, and they called as Shaman or Khan at that time.

The jade articles of Ulaganhada Culture were more important tools for Shaman life because those were even used as daily articles among ordinary people at that time. There is a common character in the jade articles, that is, each article has a hole for connecting thread and wearing. It is very popular methods used in the Northern nomadic people ornaments.

The Shaman performance is a special activity of worship and belief. The performance mainly acts in certain dance while the Shaman entering certain mental situation and it is believed that Shaman could contact with their gods in this way and doing the sacrifice. The god or soul appeared in advantage of the Shaman body and could communicate with the tribe people. Shaman always acts as an undertaker of multi-task obligation and wholly man, therefore, his clothes and tools are should be different and special from ordinary man.

The concept of soul is a very primitive and religious and popular idea of human beings. In Shamanism, there is an objective explanation about the existence of soul. The soul can move from the original body and also can back to the body again, it can move into other people’s body or objects and to do certain activities, but not being seen by human eyes. The different shapes of jade articles from Ulanganhada Culture, some of them made as fish, some as birds, some as tortoises, some as dragon horse, are may related to the soul ideology of the nomadic people.

The Shaman clothes and performance tools are very special and unique among Northern Chinese nationalities. The Shamans wear these unique clothes when they perform, so they looked very different from ordinary people and could acting as envoys between god and human, and doing their sacrifice and responsibilities. It is very significant to make their clothes,sound, articles and dances different, so that they could run the Shamanism theories, at that time.

There are loved and believed animals drawn or carved on the porcelain articles of Northern Chinese nationalities, animal designs such as boar, deer, bird , bear etc, from Ulaganhada of Inner Mongolia and certain areas of Liaoning Province. Bears are a very common animal design of symbol of strong and power among northeast Asian nomadic people and there many stories about bear and some influences found in Shamanism too. Deer are also a common thing in Shamanism, for example, the white and black deer always used in Shaman sacrifice, it means the soul of the deer could guide Shaman and meet with the god and back home. Eagles are both used in hunting and shamanism among the northeast Asian nomadic people from ancient time, even today. The jade bird from Ulaganhada Culture, it is not only a reflection of the life custom of some hunting or herding people, but also used as a certain article in Shaman performance, in my thought.

(translated from Mongolian into English by Delger)

source: http://bdelger.blog.163.com/

Contents of the Journal of the North Western Nationalities University (2008.01)

The Western Mongolian Studies

The Origin and Structure of Clans and Tribes of Khukhenagur Mongols………Hu.Cherengbel

The Reason of Studying Purpose on Zhanggar………………………………….D.Taya

On the Traditional Laws of Environmental Protection of Khukhenagur Mongols…..Muren

 

The Language and Literature Studies

A Comparative Study on the Chinggis Khan’s Altan Bichig………………………Burinbatu

The Number and Personal Sequences of Personal Pronouns in the Coordinate Clause…Oljeidalai

The Noble Class and Aristocrat Writers in Mongolian Society………………………..Doronategri

The Characters of the Artistic Mood of Mongolian Poem Aesthetic Conceptions………Bayagud Oyunbilig

On the Some Topics in Reforms to the Teaching of Modern Writing…………Gerel

On a Topic in Poems of Poet Amurjirgal from Near Modern Ordos…………..Do.Zhorigtu

 

Mongolian Folk-culture Studies

The Functions of the Legend of the Mother Alun-guwa ………Sudhan.Gereltu  Dolar.Odontuyag-a

The Reason of the Sacrifice for the Hadan Red Bulge of Chinggis Khan by Sulde Darhad…..N.Hurchabilig

Academician G.Sampildandab’s Contributions to the Studies of Mongolian Nomadic Culture and Tablet Inscriptions…………………………………….[Mongolia] Engkhetubshin Chuldumsurung

 

Forum for Doctorates and Post-graduates

On the Definite Pronoun of Mongolian………………………………………….[Japan] Ulagan-a

A Review on the Unification of Logic Terms…………………………………..Mergenbatu

 

Academic Information

The Mongolian Edition of Our Journal Won the Prize of Academic Journals of China….Sarantuyag-a

The Conference on the Development of National History and Culture of Xinjiang Mongols Was Held in Deges County………………………………….Do.Mongkhe

Academician D.Temurtogog-a Had an Academic Visit to Our University (first cover inside)……Gerelchechege

Guest Professor Mr Burinbatu in Our University (second cover inside)

(translated from Mongolian into English by Delger)

source: http://bdelger.blog.163.com

A Brief Introduction to the North Urad Banner and Cooperative Directions

By Burgud

One  A Brief Introduction

The North Urad Banner locates northwest to the Bayannagur League, 50km from Linhe City, the capital of the League, in the south. In the east, it borders with the Middle Urad Banner, in the west, lies to the Alsha League, and in the North, next to Mongolia. The Banner has a whole territory of 25,000 square kilometers, total population of 61,000. In resent years, the North Urad Banner’s economy and society are improving rapidly. In 2004, it became the one of the One Hundred Counties of the Rapid Economy Growth in China, in 2006, became one of the Most Economical Competitive One Hundred Counties in the Western China.

Two  Development Tendency

1. Advantages of resources and industries. There are 46 kinds of mines in 8 categories have been discovered from 118 mineralized points. And the mineral resources have characteristics of big reserves, good qualities and easy mining. We have been discovered 8 categories of energy, ferrous metal, nonferrous metal, precious metal, rare radioactive mineral, metallurgic raw material, industrial chemicals and building materials. 23 of them have already explored and proved their reserves. According to the statistics, the proved reserve of the copper is 79% of the whole Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region; the proved reserve of the lead is 43% of the whole Autonomous Region; the proved reserve of the zinc is 53% of the whole Autonomous Region; the proved reserve of the sulfur is 85% of the whole Autonomous Region; and it has 30 billion tons of oil shale; 150,000,000 tons of oil reserves and 140,000,000 tons of iron cores.

There are 64 kinds of industrial and mining industries, including 11 industries that their output value over 100,000,000 yuan in the whole Banner. These industries of the Banner have abilities of mining and producing for 2,000,000 tons of lead and zinc; 1,700,000 tons of copper; 2,000,000 tons of iron; 100,000 tons of nickel each year. And abilities of smelting of 100,000 tons of zinc; 100,000 tons of copper; 45,000 tons of iron and 50,000 tons of lead each year.

The main enterprises are Dongshengmiao Mining Company, Western Copper Company, Qihua Mining Company, Wancheng Mining Company, Bayannagur Zijin Nonferrous Metal Company Ltd., the North Urad Banner Zijin Mining Company and Ebtu Nickel & Cobalt Company.

2. Advantages of location and communication. The North Urad Banner lies to the Southern Gobi Province of Mongolia, Alagsha League, Ordos City, Wuhai City, Bugutu City of Inner Mongolian central areas, and locates in the mediacy of resources of western China. The town of Khukheundur as center in our Banner, radius of 200-250km around it, the economic circle may include the whole Bayannagur City, Wuhai City, Ordos City, Alsha League and the southern part of the Southern Gobi Province of Mongolia, therefore it has a very large economic radiation. At present, our Banner is applying for reopening of the Bagamodo Port, and the plan has reported to the National Customs Administration, and the plan has taken into the Ten One Five Project for State Port Construction. At the same time, our Banner constantly strengthening the exchange and cooperation with Mongolia, has concluded sister Banners or counties with the several areas of the Southern Gobi Province of Mongolia, come to an agreement on opening ports and striving for the project now. The Bagamodo Port is a historical trading port of the North Urad Banner, and just neighboring with the Budugunmodo Port of Bayanoboo County of Mongolia. The port has a direct distance of 650km from Ulaanbaatar, 220km from the Southern Gobi Province, 410km from Middle Gobi Province, 610km from Bayanhonggor Province, 520km from the South Hanggai Province, 760km from Bulgan Province and 690km from the North Hanggai Province, Mongolia. It is 110km from the Bagamodo Port to Linhe – Ceke – Hami Railway of Xinjiang, 193km from the Baolan Railway (from Bugutu to Lanzhou), Jingzang Highway (from Beijing to Tibet) and 110 National Highway; therefore, we have a very convenient communication and transportation. When the port will be opened, it might become an important center of freight and commercial and transportation between China and Mongolia, because of cutting down the distance about 200km from mineral areas of the Southern Gobi Province of Mongolia to Khukheundur Town, an important industrial town of our Banner, compared with the distance to the Ganjigmodo Port, and also cutting down the distance about 900km compared with Eriyen Port. And if residents from the neighboring provinces of Mongolia come here and shopping from the Bagamodo Port, their cost and expenses also will be cut down by 2-3 times. When the Linha Raiway (Linhe-Ceke-Hami,Xinjinag ) will be built, it will reach Tinjing Port in the east, reach middle Asia even to Europe in the west, connect with the railway from China Ceke Port to Ulaanbaatar under construction. The Lince Railway (from Linhe to Ceke Port of Alsha League, a part of Liha Railway) under construction will be fished next year and opened to traffic. Therefore, two arteries of communication to Ceke Port and Bagamodo Port will be crossed in here the industrial important town of Khukheundur, and connected to railways, highway networks of whole China.

3. The advantages of electricity and water recourses. The Banner has about 1100km total length of electronic transmutation wires, over 300 thousand kilowatts total capacity of power supply, had supplied 1.2 billion degrees of electricity in 2006. The banner has established two of 220kv substations, two of 110kv substations, six of 35kv substations. The Banner is going to establish one of 500kv substation, one of 220kv substation and another 110kv substation is going to build in Bagamodo Port. And have newly built many wind generation industries, with total output of over 1200,000 kilowatts, and going to supply electricity to Mongolia. The China’s second biggest river, the Yellow River, one of its tributaries flows through the Banner, provides plenty of water resource of 400 billion cubic meters each year, satisfy the development needs of the industries and the city.

The Khukeundur Town is the nearest industrial base to Tabun Tolugai and Oyu Tolugai mining areas of Southern Gobi Province of Mongolia, having plenty of resources of water, electricity, communication and transportation. And formed a certain scale industrial base which based on nonferrous metals.

Three  Development Planning

In the future, the North Urad Banner is going to develop dominant industries actively, and set up industrial bases of metallurgy, chemistry, recourses and logistics.

1. Metallurgic Industry: the Banner based on own resources and importing mineral resources from Mongolia in addition, and continue to expand the industrial economy. The copper industry, the Western Copper Company is being built as a key copper mining project with 2000,000 tons of copper each year, the Feishang Copper Metallurgic Company 100,000 tons of copper each year; the lead and zinc industry, the Zijin Mineral Company is being built as a major construction with 200,000 tons of product each year, the Wancheng Commercial Company 300,000 tons each year, the Western Copper Company 85 tons of metal mining each year; and do well with the second term construction of Zijin Company’s project of 100,000 tons of zinc each year, Huapeng Company’s project of 20,000 tons of oxidized zinc each year; the iron industry, the Shuangli Company is being built as a key project of 200,000 tons of iron mining and 400,000 tons of coal and reduced iron each year. The Banner is going to strive and begin to build project of 600,000 tons of nickel and chromium stainless steel, and projects of secondary products of refinery processing of copper, iron, lead and zinc.

2. the chemical industries: the Banner is speeding up the construction of the Qihua Company’s 400,000 tons of sulfur-based compound fertilizer each year, the Shenyang Company’s first term project of 30,000 tons of hydrofluoric acid each year, the Zijin Company’s 50,000 tons of acid pickling polyester iron alum slag each year, the Yitai Company’s 15,000 tons of less antimony powdery explosives each year, and project of importing 2,000 tons of poly-silicon each year. The Banner is striving for a breaking through progress on oil shale mining, to build a mine of 2000,000 tons of oil shale each year, a factory of 100,000 tons of oil shale retort.

3. The energy industries: the Banner is going to strengthening on the development and utilization of renewable energies such as wind energy and the sun energy. By 2010, the Banner is going to be built as a wind power base of over 1,200,000 kilowatts each year. The solar power industry is going to built in advance, construction of a project of 1,000,000 kilowatts solar power is going to start and built.

4. The logistic industry: the Banner takes advantage of the Lince Raiway, is going to establish bigger logistic industry, comprehensively develop railway logistics and highway logistics, and the Khukheundur Town will be built as the biggest synthetic and intermediate logistic base which covers whole Bayannagur City; takes the advantages of Bagamodo Port, the port will be built as the biggest synthetic trading and logistic base in the Western Inner Mongolia.

Four  Cooperative Prospects

The Ivanhoe Mines Ltd is a world famous mining company, and doing business all over the world. The North Urad Banner has a plenty of mineral resources, advantage of outstanding location and a great development potentiality. Therefore, there is a great cooperation space between the Ivanhoe Mines Ltd and the North Urad Banner, and has a great joint cooperative prospects, too. The North Urad Banner locates mine zones in the Yinshan Mount area and the Altai mine zone link area, there are plenty of mine resources and several mine areas have a large peripheral and potential prospecting. The Ivanhoe Mines Ltd has an advanced technology and strong power, can do further expiration and mining in our Banner. Besides, the Ivanhoe Mines Ltd is exploring and mining in the Southern Gobi Province of Mongolia, and our Banner has plenty of electricity and water resources, excellent location, and good industrial basic, convenient communication, there are many complimentary advantages for two sides for development of mineral resources of Mongolia, and could approach a win-win result. And also, both sides may discus and cooperate in other fields in our common interests.

The forgoing two kinds of Cooperative Directions have very wide contents. According to the actual needs, we could change them into practical implemental measures. If Ivanhoe Mines Ltd interested, may develop the next step field work, investigation and negotiate business. The North Urad Banner welcomes Ivanhoe Mines Ltd to the Banner in anytime, and doing investigation and negotiate business and research.

(translated from Chinese into English by Delger)

source: http://bdelger.blog.163.com/

 

Category: Others 1,313 views

The FOURS of Chinggis Khan

By Chimeddorji

1. Four sons of Chinggis Khan

Zhuchi (1177—1225 A.D.) was the eldest son of Chinggis Khan, a famous general of the Great Mongol Empire founding. Obeying the order of Chinggis Khan, he conquered the Oirad Tribe in 1207, and attended the War of Conquering Jin State and the West Conquest. When Chinggis Khan gave enfeoffment to his sons, he got the largest land which lies west to the Aral Sea and north to the Caspian Sea. When Jebe and Subegedei generals went over Caucasian Mounts and invaded Chibchag Tribe and Russia in 1221, Zhuchi ordered his backup troop; he acted very valiancy and brave.

Chagadai (?—1242 A.D.) was the great general of the Great Mongol Empire founding, the second son of Chinggis Khan. Together with Chinggis Khan, he attended the War of Conquering Jin State and the West Conquest to the Middle Asia. When Chinggis Khan gave enfeoffment to his sons, he got the original land of the Western Liao State, later called as the Chagadai Khanate. Because of he was supposed as heir of Chinggis Khan in early time, treated as the Elder of the all kings, during Ogedei was in power. He was famous for his daring and strategic and decisive.

Ogedei (1186–1241 A.D.) was the third son of Chinggis Khan. Together with Chinggis Khan, he attended the War of Conquering Jin State and the West Conquest from his childhood. When Chinggis Khan gave enfeoffment to his sons, he got the land of the Erchis-upriver and east of Balkas Lake. In 1229, he was elected as emperor of the Great Mongol Empire by the Khuraldai Parliament. According to the testament of Chinggis Khan, he destroyed Jin State, and unified the North China. In 1236, Ogedei sent Batu, the General of the Army to the West, soon conquered the Mid-European areas. He died in 1241, at the age of his 55. After the establishment of the Yuan Empire, he was honored as Taizong.

Toli (1193–1232 A.D.) was the youngest son of Chinggis Khan. Toli went on expeditions everywhere from his childhood. In 1213, together with Chinggis Khan, he attended the War of Conquering Jin State and occupied a lot of cities. In 1219, went on the West Conquest together with his father, conquered Samarqand area in the Middle Asia. According to Mongolian tradition, he got Mongolian mainland as his enfeoffment. After Chinggis Khan’s death, Toli became the temporary supervisor of the Great Mongol Empire. In the Khuraldai Parliament of 1229, Toli and other kings promoted Ogedei as the emperor of the Great Mongol Empire. Since 1230, together with general Subegedei, according to Chinggis Khan’s testament, by detouring from Song State and destroyed the Jin State. He died in 1232, at his early age of 40. His four sons from the first queen, such as Mongkhe, Khublai, Khulgu and Arigbukhe, were great talented and became great leaders later, too. After the Establishment of Yuan Empire, he was honored as Ruizong.

2.Four Brothers of Chinggis Khan

Hasar (1164–? A.D.) was the second younger brother of Chinggis Khan, a famous general of the Great Mongol Empire founding. He made a lot of war exploits combating with Khereid and Naiman tribes. When Chinggis Khan gave enfeoffment to his sons and brothers, he got 4,000 families of people and land near the Erkun-e River, Hailar River and Kulun Lake. In 1213, Chinggis Khan invaded Jin State from three sides, Hasar ordered the left wing troop and occupied the areas of Ping and Liang and Western Liao, etc. He was famous for his brave and excellent arrow shooting.

Hachigun (1166–?A.D.) was the third younger brother of Chinggis Khan, he made great merit in the unification war of Mongols.When Chinggis Khan gave enfeoffment to his sons and brothers, Hachigun’s son got 3,000 families of people.

Odchigin (1168–A.D.) was the youngest brother of Chinggis Khan, a famous general of the Great Mongol Empire founding. When Chinggis Khan gave enfeoffment to his sons and brothers, he and his mother got 10,000 families of people and land lies east to the Khalkha River and Hinggan Mountain. During the time of Chinggis Khan went on the West Conquest, he was appointed to guard the mainland.

Belgudei (?–?) was the half brother of Chinggis Khan, a famous general of the Great Mongol Empire founding. Following Chinggis Khan everywhere in the battles and made great merits. When Chinggis Khan gave enfeoffment to his sons and brothers, he got 3,000 families of people and the Cities of Guangninglu and Enzhou, Xinzhoulu and Qianshanzhou, and settled in the Onon and Chegel grassland. He once appointed as prime minister and Darugachi official. He was famous for his honest and strategic and brave.

3. Four Khulugs (HORSES) of Chinggis Khan

Muhulai (1170–1223 A.D.) was a famous general of the Great Mongol Empire founding, from the Jalair Tribe. In his early age of childhood, he followed Temujin and made a close friend called as Nokhor, and gave a great help for Chinggis Khan’s unification to Mongol tribes. After the establishment of the Great Mongol Empire, he was promoted as the leader of left wing 10,000 families or Tumen. And then, he invaded Jin State together with Chinggis Khan and attended the West Conquest. And he was promoted as the National King called Taishi and in charge of the central China. In 1223, he died of illness. He was famous for his super wisdom and strategic and combat talent.

Bugurchu (?–?) was a famous general of the Great Mongol Empire founding, from the Arulad Tribe. Knowing Temujin on the occasion of the eight horses searching and he made a very close friend with him, so he had been a loyal and devoted friend to Chinggis Khan through those hard times. Following Chinggis Khan, he attended the West Conquest War and made a great merit to the kingdom. After the establishment of the Great Mongol Empire, he was promoted as the leader of right wing 10,000 families or Tumen. He was famous for his heroic will and strategic and brave.

Buruhul(?–?) was a famous general of the Great Mongol Empire founding, from the Sugusud Clan. Following Chinggis Khan, he made a great merit in the unification war of Mongols. He was killed by a capture unfortunately in the battle with Horitumed. He was famous for his honest and brave.

Chilagun (?–?) was a famous general of the Great Mongol Empire founding, from the Suldesun Clan. In early time of his childhood, he rescued Temujin once. Later he also followed Chinggis Khan and attended the unification war of Mongols, and reached splendor battle achievement. He was famous for both of his wisdom and brave.

4. Four Nohais (DOGS) of Chinggis Khan

Jebe (?—1223 A.D.) was a famous general of the Great Mongol Empire founding, from the Basud Tribe. His original name was Jirgugatai, but once he shot the horse neck on which Chinggis Khan rode, hence he called Jebe or arrow tip. After the establishment of the Great Mongol Empire, he was promoted as the leader of 1,000 families or Minggan. In 1211, he was sent as pioneer in the war to Jin State by Chinggis Khan. In 1219, he followed with Chinggis Khan, attended the battles to Azerbaijan, Chibchag and Russia etc. and reached splendor battle achievement. In 1223, he died on the east journey for going home. He was famous for his pioneer spirit and strategic and diligence.

Subegedai(1176–1248 A.D.) was a famous general of the Great Mongol Empire founding, from the Uriyanghai Tribe. In early time of his childhood, he followed Temujin and attended the unification war of Mongols and Jin State Conquest. In 1219, he followed with Chinggis Khan, and attended the battles to Azerbaijan, Chibchag and Russia etc. After Chinggis Khan’s death, he assisted Ogedei Khan and reached splendor battle achievement in destroying Jin State. In 1235, he joined the second westward expedition with Batu and was sent as pioneer, and occupied the regions of Chibchag, Russia and Hungary etc. He was famous for his independence and lightning war and information collecting and strategic and meticulous battle plans. He died on Tuula River.

Jelme(?–?) was a famous general of the Great Mongol Empire founding, from Uriyanghai Tribe. He was the earliest Nokhor of the Chinggis Khan. He rescued Chinggis Khan three times, and attended the unification war of Mongols and made a great merit to the kingdom. After the establishment of the Great Mongol Empire, he was promoted as the leader of the left wing 1,000 families or Minggan. He was famous for his honest and strategic and brave and tolerance.

Hubilai (?—1212 A.D.), was a famous general of the Great Mongol Empire founding, from the Barlus Tribe. At his early age of childhood, he followed Chinggis Khan and only one who was granted a special right to wear knife among those Nokhors. He attended the unification war of Mongols and made a great merit to the kingdom. After the establishment of the Great Mongol Empire, he was promoted as the leader of 1,000 families or Minggan. In 1210, he was sent for conquest to Halalu? and accepted Arslan Khan’s surrender. He is famous for his pioneer spirit and agility and brave.

(translated from Chinese into English by Delger)

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Category: Others 2,183 views

A Notice to the International Conference on Arzhai Cave Culture(2007)

(retrospective)

To Dear Mr./ Mrs./Miss:

For developing the research of Arzhai Cave Culture, the International Conference on Arzhai Cave Culture is going to be held in Mid-September, 2007, by the Social Science Academy of Inner Mongolia in Otog Banner, Ordos City, Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region, China. According to your academic approach and honor, we are glad to invite you for the symposium.

Some Notices to the Conference:

1.   The Symposium has been approved by the government and is going to be held by the Social Science Academy of Inner Mongolia, with the support of the Antique Bureau of Inner Mongolia and the Government of Otog Banner etc.

2.   the Conference is divided into different sections, such as the Cave Culture, the Titles from the Wall Painting, the Tibetan Buddhism, the Ancient Mongolian History; the conference speech and talks on different topics.

3.   Chinese, Mongolian and English, these languages are available.

4.   There are no conference fees.

5.   A Proceeding is going to be published after the conference.

6.   Order of the Day: 3 days of academic talks and a survey.

7.   Please send your acceptation letter and the paper abstract to our office, before May 31, 2007.

Address: the Reception Office of he Social Science Academy of Inner Mongolia, No.19 Daxue East Road, Huhhot 010010, Inner Mongolia, P.R.China

The Reception Office of the International Conference on Arzhai Cave Culture of China

March 16, 2007

(translatede from Chinese into English by DELGER)

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The Closing Speech of the International Symposium on Mongolian Studies of China(2005)

Respectful Every Leader

Respectful Every Scholar

Ladies and gentlemen:

Under the kind guidance and the cordial concern of the Propaganda Department of the Central Committee of the CPC, the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region’s Committee of the CPC and the Government of the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region, and by the joint efforts of the all participants and scholars, after the three days of talking, “the International Symposium on Mongolian Studies of China”, will be closed today. On behalf of the organizing units of “the International Symposium on Mongolian Studies of China”, such as the Academy of Inner Mongolian Social Sciences, Inner Mongolia University and the Inner Mongolian Teacher’s University, I would like to express our loyal thanks to the scholars who attended the meeting, from home and abroad.

The leaders and scholars who are presenting in the rostrum are:

Professor Chenggeltei, vice-president of the International Association on Mongolian Studies; the former committee member of the National People’s Congress of Standing Committee; the honorary director of the College of Mongolian Studies of Inner Mongolia University.

Academician Enkhetubshin, the director of the International Research Institute of the Nomadic Culture, the Educational and Scientific and Cultural Organization of the United Nations; vice-president of the International Association on Mongolian Studies; the director of the Science Academy of Mongolia.

Professor Yoshida Jun’Ichi, president of the Japanese Association of Mongolian Studies; vice-president of Japanese Mongolian Studies Society; professor of University of Waseda.

Researcher Wu Tuanying, director of the Academy of Inner Mongolian Social Sciences.

Professor Khugjiltu, vice-president of Inner Mongolia University.

Professor Bazarov, the director of the Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences.

Researcher Bulag, deputy director of the Academy of Inner Mongolian Social Sciences.

The first Item of the Symposium: Reports from the heads of each section

1.       A report by professor Bayarmendu, head of the Section of the Mongolian Language and Script.

2.       A report by researcher Bo.Sechen, head of the Section of the Mongolian Literature.

3.       A report by researcher Xiao Ke, head of the Section of the Mongolian History and Documents.

4.       A report by professor Jagar, head of the Section of the Grassland Culture and Customs.

The Second Item of the Symposium: Speeches by some of the scholars

1.       A Speech by academician Enkhetubshin, the director of the International Research Institute of the Nomadic Culture, the Educational and Scientific and Cultural Organization of the United Nations; vice-president of the International Association on Mongolian Studies; the director of the Science Academy of Mongolia.

2.       A Speech by researcher Jagunnasutu, from the Research Institute of Nationalities, the Academy of Social Sciences of China.

3.       Academician P.Horloo, from the Science Academy of Mongolia.

4.       A Speech by professor Hao Weimin, from Inner Mongolia University.

5.       A Speech by professor Yoshida Jun’Ichi, president of the Japanese Association of Mongolian Studies; vice-president of Japanese Mongolian Studies Society; professor of University of Waseda.

6.       A Speech by professor L.Uspensky, the Branch of the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

7.       A Speech by professor Dr. Alice Sárközi, from Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

The Third Item of the Symposium: a Closing Speech by researcher Bulag, deputy director of the Academy of Inner Mongolian Social Sciences.

Every leader and every scholar, during the course of the holding of the symposium, we had got the solicitudes and supports from more than 20 medias, such as Xinhua Agency of the People’s Daily, the Guang Ming Daily, the China National Newspaper, the Inner Mongolia Daily, the Inner Mongolia Radio and the Inner Mongolian Television Station, etc. And also got kind supports from the friends and the Government of the City of Huhhot, the Government of the City of Bogutu and the Xincheng Hotel, too. Here, I am on behalf of the participants, sincerely thank for forgoing those persons and units. At the same time, we hope that you forgive us with the lacks and shortcomings we had made in the organizing and holding of the symposium.

Now, I announce that “International Symposium on Mongolian Studies of China” is closed with victory!

(translated from Chinese into English by Delger )

source: http://bdelger.blog.163.com

MONGOLIAN STUDIES YEAR BOOK 2005

CONTENTS

Mongolian Studies in China

A Summary of Mongolian Spoken and Written Language Researches ……….…..Badmaodsar

An Outline of Normalization, Standardization and Information Processing of Mongolian Language….D.Qinggeltu   Khesigdureng

An Overview of the Mongolian Near Modern Literature Researches…………………….B.Suhe

A Brief Introduction to the Modern Mongolian Literature Researches…………………Ch.Jargal

An Overview of the Mongolian Folklore Researches………………….………………Huang Jin

An Overview of the Mongolian Art Researches……………………………Khugjiltu Durasgaltu

An Overview of the Mongolian Clans or Tribes’ History Researches…….…………..Tao Yukun

An Overview of the Researches of Mongolian History of the Mongol Yuan Empire………Zhang Daiyu

An Overview of the Researches of Mongolian History during the Ming and Yuan Dynasties………Khurcha

An Overview of the Researches on the Northern China Nationalities Antiques and Archeology  …Tala Zhang Wenping

An Overview of the Mongolian Philosophy and History of the Social Thoughts Researches…………………………………………………………………..Bo.Aimei   Togtahu

A Brief Introduction to the Mongolian Legal System History Researches…………………………………………………………………..Naranchogtu  Arong

An Overview of the Researches on Mongolian Religions………………….Quan Rong

An Overview of the Mongolian Social Economy Researches…………………………

…………………………………………………………………….…Oronchi  Yuying  Uyuntana

A Brief Introduction to the Mongolian Custom Researches……………………………….Urgumal

An Overview of the Mongolian Nationality Education Researches……………………………

………………………………………………………Wang Fenglei   Yu Xiaomei    Qindamani

An Overview of the Daur, Ewenki and Orchon Nationalities Studies……………………….Yisong

 

Mongolian Studies in Abroad

An Overview of the Folk Customs Researches of Mongolia…………………….H.Sanpildondub

Past Away Scholars in the Year

An Outstanding German Mongolist Professor W.Heissig and His Life Story in Brief……Qimeddorji

Professor Bayar’s Life Story and His Achievement………………………………………….Jagar

 

Special Interview

An Interview with Professor Yu Dajun from Beijing University………….…………Yu Jing

 

Nomadic Culture Forum

On the Modern Civilization Significance of the Nomadic Culture………………..Chen Guanglin

Let’s Protect the Nomadic Culture and Promote and Develop the Outstanding National Culture…Ulaan

On the Some Topics of Nomadic Culture Studies…………………………………..Wu Tuanying

On the Value System of the Nomadic Culture……………………………………………….Unen

On the Spirit Ideas of the Nomadic Culture…………………………..Togtahu

The Great Contributions of the Nomadic Culture………………Wang Dafang  Zhang Wenfang

A Brief Study on the Nomadic Culture Function to the Formation of the Chinese Civilization…Yu Jianshe

An Outline of Nomadic Culture Studies……………………….Zhang Zhihua

 

The Century Review

An Analysis to the Resent Years Mongolian History Studies Outline (1990-2005)….Shidurgu  Nuungerel

A Review of Mongolian Written Language Information Processing and an Analysis on Its Problems…Garudi

A Brief Introduction to the Mongolian Studies Network Resources……………Delger

 

Monographs

An Introduction to the Mongolian Ganjuur………………………………Zhang Shuangfu

The Development and Historical Changes of Mongolian Written Language……….Bo.Bolag

 

Thesis Digests …………………………………………………………………………………

Academic Information……………………………………………………………………….

Book Reviews and News…………………………………………………………………….

The Special Column of Literary Arts…………………………………………………………

Important Chronicles or Events………………………………………………………………

 

Mongolian Studies Indexes

An Index of Mongolian Studies Thesis (in Chinese)…………………………………..Erdeni

An Index of Mongolian Studies Achievements (in Mongolian)………………………..Ulinhuar

(Translated from Chinese into English by Delger)

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