Monthly Archives: January 2014

A Catalogue of Research Articles of Rashicheren

(Thesis, commentaries and monographic studies; translated from Monoglian into English by Delger)

1.     On the Mongolian Civic Virtues

Inner Mongolian Youth, No.12, 1981, p4—6

2.     Interesting Geographical Names

Inner Mongolian Geographical Names, No.2, 1981, p67—68

3.     A Study on the Chakhar Folk Song of Bolgantohoi

Golden Key, No.1, 1982, p37—48

4.     A Research of the Teeth and Fur Color of the Five Kinds of Animals

Mongolian Language, No.2, 1982, p34—52

5.     About Some of the Derived Words of Mongolian

Inner Mongolia Teacher’s University, No.2, 1982, p132—137

6.     Horse Raising and the Fine Horse

Inner Mongolian Social Science, No.1, 1983, p142—160

7.  On the Scripture of Fire Sacrifice by Chahar Gebshi Lobsanchuldum

Cholmon, No.2, 1983, p193—199

8.  A Study of a Mongolian Famous Scholar Chahar Gebshi Lobsanchuldum

Inner Mongolian Social Science, No.4, 1983, p163—182

9.     A Brief Introduction to Biography of Mongolian Famous Scholar Chahar Gebshi Lobsanchuldum

Golden Key, No.2, 1984, p105—106

10. A Commentary on a Poem by Pu Chogtunaran

Golden Key, No.1, 1985, p78—79

11. An Analyze on Text of Mother

Reference Books, Educational Publishing House of Inner Mongolia, 1985, p46—51

12. A Brief Introduction to Chagaan Agula Temple of the White Banner of Chahar

A Cultural History of the Straight White Banner, 1986, Second Volume, p145—154

13. On the Legends of Geographical Names of My Home Town

Inner Mongolian Geographical Names, No.1, 1987, p35—38

14. Two Fantastic Similar Articles

Golden Key, No.4, 1989, p61—73

15. A Commentary on Writing Skills of Works of Shechinbayar

Magazine of Shilingool, No.4, 1989, p77—81

16. Analyzes on the Texts of the Red-crowned Crane, the Khesigten Dairy Products and the Fried Millet

Reference Books, Educational Publishing House of Inner Mongolia, 1992, p141—164

17. A Bunch of Flowers of Mongolian Wrestling Culture

Inner Mongolian Social Science, No.1, 1998, p119—123

18. Inner Mongolian Wrestlers Who Attended All Previous Olympic Games

Magazine of Marriage ,Family and Society, No.1, 1998, p16—18

20. An Outlook of Wrestling Sports of Mongolia

Magazine of Marriage ,Family and Society, No.1, 1998, p16—18

21. Talking about Chinese Language Thoughts Which Appeared in the Writings by Students Who learning in Mongolian in Cities

Inner Mongolian Social Science, No.1, 2000, p96—100

22. The Home of the Fine Horse – Chagaan Agula

Inner Mongolian Animal Husbandry, No.4, 2002, p23—25

source: http://bdelger.blog.163.com

Treasures of the Great Yuan Empire (1)

(translated from Chinese into English by Delger)

The Outline of the Selected Treasures on Show

The Shangdu Museum of Inner Mongolia

The Foundation of Culture of the Mongol Yuan Empire

The outline of the Exhibition of the Selected Treasures of the Great Yuan Empire is under being perfecting, while have been directed and modified by many scholars and experts, such as professor Yang Hong from the Institute of Archeology of the Social Sciences Academy of China, professor Qi Dongfang from Beijing University, professor Shang Gang from Tsinghua University, professor Zhao Feng, vice director of China Silk Museum, Professor Chimeddorji from Inner Mongolia University, professors Wang Zhaochun and Zhong Shaoyi from the Academy of Military Science. Many thanks for their kind help and guidance here.

 

Foreword

The history of human beings is a history of development. What is more of Chinese history is a kind of history of mutual friction, mixed together, developing and regenerating relationships between the Central Plains Civilization and Grassland Civilization. At the thirteenth century, the Mongol Empire was in the rising, and brought an end to over three hundred years of dispute, unprecedented unification to the great country, and made frequent contacts between the eastern and western culture, prosperous social economy, became a strong country of no equal of her time and sprung up in the East, thus the unique culture of the Yuan Empire had its splendid achievements in history. The Museum of the Yuan Empire upholds poly-culture of nationalities, and determined to collect treasures and antiques of the Yuan Empire period, in the purpose of giving a supplement to the culture and history of the motherland. With these hopes, we have selected 110 kinds of antiques of the Yuan Empire, classified them into three subjects, such as Ancient Written Languages, Weapons and Handicrafts. And hoped to establish a platform for antiques of culture development of the Yuan Empire, to display these treasures to the world so that people could learn and understand more about the Yuan Empire culture from many sides and scientifically, based on the main thread of culture development of we human beings.

 

Contents

Foreword

Prologue

Category I

Ancient Written Languages

Series 1   The Uigurjin Mongolian Script and the Other Ancient Scripts

Series 2   The Pagsba Script and the Other Ancient Scripts

 

Category II

Weapons

Series 1   Military Order Signs

Series 2   Metallic Weapons

Series 3   Firearms

Series 4   Harness

 

Category III

Series 1   Gold and Silver Utensils

Series 2   Bronze and Iron Utensils

Series 3   Jade Articles

Series 4   Clothing

Series 5   Porcelain

Series 6   Wares of Wood and Bone and Other Materials

 

Prologue

Prologue:  The list of the subjects on show are written on the Leather Base Map of the Yuan Empire

Supplementary Subjects on Show:

1.      A portrait of Genghis Khan

2.      A Brief Introduction to Genghis Khan’s Life

Genghis Khan (1162-1227), Taizu (ancestor or the father emperor) of the Yuan Empire, from Kiyan Tribe, his clan is called Borjigin, named Temujin, was born in a noble family. When still a boy, his father was murdered by his feud, and his clan abandoned him and his mother, for the next few years, he and his family lived a poor and dangerous life with their mother. Later, by the help of Wang Khan, a tribal chief of Khreid, had successfully united the formerly fragmented tribes for him, improved his power and force step by step and established the Great Palace Camps and became the Khan. By a long period of wars of conquest, defeated the stronger tribes of Tatar, Khreid and Naiman etc, and united the whole Mongolian tribes. In 1206, on the bank of the Onan River, hold a Khuruldai Meeting, founded the Great Mongol Empire, and ascended the throne of the Khan, was titled as Genghis Khan. And he promulgated the decree of Yekhe Jasag, established the Khesigten Guard Force of ten thousand soldiers, offered official posts and fief to ninety-nine families and appointed Jarguchi Officer who in charges of administration and law. In 1209, invaded Western Xia first time and forced to make peace by getting princess from the Xia State. In 1211 and 1214, declared war two times with Jin State and conquered the northern China, and took the Middle Capital (present Beijing) in 1215. In 1219, he led with two hundred thousand army and marched to Khwarizm, during the several years of battle, seized the cities of Utilar (right bank of Siri River of Kazakhstan), Buchara (Uzbekistan), Samarkand (Uzbekistan), Urgencˇ(Turkmen), etc. And conquered the most part of the central Asian territory. In 1223, he withdrew the army back to home. In 1226, he invaded Western Xia again and destroyed it in the following year. Genghis Khan diseased in 1227, at the foot of Liupanshan Mount. In 1265, he was given the posthumous title as Taizu (ancestor or the father emperor) by Shizu (the first emperor) of the Yuan Empire. In 1266, he was endorsed as Shengwu Huangdi (His Majesty), and in 1309, he was confirmed as the His Majesty of Fatian Qiyun (Building a Regime by the Idea of the Heaven).

3.      A portrait of Kublai Khan

4.      A Brief Introduction to Kublai Khan’s Life

Kublai (1215-1294) is known as Yuan Shizu (the first emperor of the Yuan Empire), his father was Genghis Khan’s forth son Toloi, his mother was Sulharni Hatun, and he was younger brother of Yuan Xianzong Emperor Mongkhe. In 1251, he was appointed as the commander in chief for governmental and military affairs of Inner Gobi Desert and Chinese areas. In 1253, he received instructions and attacked the Yunnan, and destroyed the Dali State. In 1256, he begun to build the City of Kaipingfu (locating in the east of present Straight Blue Banner of Inner Mongolia), and in charge of the affairs of the palace. In 1258, the emperor Xuanzong attacked the Zong State and Kublai attacked the City of Ezhou by the order of him. In 1259, the emperor Xuanzong dead and Kublai made a peace with the Zong State at the City of Ezhou and withdrew the force to the north. In March, 1260, he hold the Khuraldai Meeting at the City of Kaipingfu, and ascended the throne of Khan, and was titled as Huangdi (emperor), then he established the reigh title of Yuan Zhongtong. And he declared war to his brother Arigbuha, and defeated him and Arigbuha surrendered in 1264. In November 1272, he called the State Title as the Great Yuan, and founded the capital in Dadu (present Beijing). Next, he led a big army and attacked the South Zong State and destroyed it in 1277.     He diseased in 1294, he was in thirty-five years of emperor power. The reputable title was called Sechen Khan in Mongolian, posthumous title as Shizu (the first emperor), and was confirmed as Saint Deshenggong Wenwu Emperor.

5.      The Map of the Great United Khan Empire (leather map)

6.       The Family Tree of Emperors of the Yuan Empire

 

A Diagram of the Ancient Scripts

|

The Altaic Family Language

|

_____________________________________________

|                    |                        |

Turkish               Mongolian               Tunggus

|

_________________________________________

|                                        |

The Uigurjin Mongolian Script                The Pagasba Script

|                                        |

The Uygur Script                 ______________________________

|                              |

Tibetan                       Sanskit

The Application Categories of the Yuan Empire Scripts

|

___________________________________________

|                                           |

The Official Written Languages                    The Coexisting Scripts

|                                           |

___________________________                                 |

|             |             |                                 |

Chinese  Pagasba Script  Uygur Script                           |

|

|

_______________________________________________________________

|         |           |          |          |        |            |

Kidan Script   Arab Script   Syria Script  Chagadai Script   Tibetan   Sanskrit   Western Xia Characters

 

One. The Ancient Scripts

An Introduction to the Scripts

The northern nomadic people have some special written languages, as a kind of chain of mutual influence, adopting from each other, and formed in a gradual evaluation. Such as relations between Turkish Script and Luni Script, Uygur Script and Sogda Script, Syria Script and Sogda Script, classic Mongolian Script and Uygur Script, Sanskit and Jurchin Script, Western Xia Characters and Chinese Characters, and Mongolian Letters and Manchu Letters, etc. In the labyrinth of these scripts, begin our written languages tour by reading and understanding Mongolian scripts.

In some history book recorded, “Mongols have no written language originally, and to note events by mouth or woodcut.” Although there were Uygur, Turkish, Chinese and Kidan scripts or characters in their neighbors, they only used to be circulated among religious missionaries, diplomatic contacts and messengers, and not formed Mongolian national script. In 1204, Genghis Khan destroyed Naiman tribe and let Dadadongga make Uygurjin Mongolian Script. And he made the princes and monarchs learning it and to write documents with the script. At the periods of Ogedei, Guyukh and Mungkhe, there were coexisted Uyguijin Mongolian, Chinese and Kidan scripts or characters.

When Kublai became the great Khan of the Yuan, had Pagsba Lama, from Saja area of Tibet, created the Mongolian New Script, it also called Pagsba Script, based on Tibetan and Sanskrit Letters, and it has square shapes as Chinese characters, written from top to bottom direction. In February, the sixth year of Zhiyuan (1269), it was officially declared as the New Mongolian Script, later it was decided as the national written language. With the script, people not only can transcribe Mongolian, but also transcribe Chinese, Tibetan and Uygur. During the Yuan Dynasty, it was in common use as a national written language. At the same time, Chinese and Persian Scripts were also used as official languages. And those scripts as Uyguijin Mongolian, Uygur, Western Xia, Arab, Hungarian, Sanskrit and Latin scripts or characters were coexisted.

Appendix:

1.      Silver Volume Background Picture

2.      The Inscription of the Silver Pagoda Background Picture

3.      Diagram of the Evolution of the Script Application

 

Series 1 The Uigurjin Mongolian Script and the Other Ancient Scripts

Antiques on Display:  Total       Items

Appendixes:         Total       Items

Appendixes:

1.      The Table of Sogda Letters (Introduction, 79 pages)

Introduction: Sogda is recorded first in the book of the Western Area Notes of the Great Tang. The Sogda language belongs to the eastern dialect of ancient Iran. Sogda people were living about at Samarkand and Buchara (present Uzbekistan) at that time. The script was from Arami Script of SHANGHAN? Family Language.

2.      The Table of Uygurjin Mongolian Script (Introduction, 87 pages)

Introduction: At the period of the Gaochang Uygur Kingdom (850-1250), the Uygur Script gradually took place of ancient Turkish Script that was used in the inner areas of the Gobi Desert. The Uygur Script was from Sogda Script that used in Middle Asia. In early 13th century, the Uygur Script was adopted by Mongols and formed the Uygurjin Mongolian Script.

3.      The Table of Moni Script (Introduction 82 pages)

 

A JADE CUP

Number: one   Serial number: J-000054

The article description: (Mongol Yuan Empire) height 13cm, caliber width 16.7cm, the bottom diameter 10cm. There is some words written in ancient Persian, around the rim and outside of the wall, and there is some words written in Uygurjin Mongolian on the bottom. The bottom description: Temujin (an important antique that have successfully read and explained)

Appendix:

1.      ? Photographs of the Article from Poly-angles

2.      8 Photographs of the Article Inscriptions by Parts

The Jade Cup: these on the upper part,1- 4 are inscriptions around the rim, those on the lower part, 1- 6 are inscriptions around the middle, 7 is inscriptions on the range and 8 is the inscriptions on the bottom.

 

A SILVER BOOK WITH TURKISH AND UYGURJIN MONGOLIAN SCRIPS

Number: one  Serial Number: S- 000013

The article description: (the Mongol Yuan Empire) length 21.8cm, rim width 15.5cm, thickness 0.3cm. (An important antique that have successfully read and explained)

Appendix:

Introduction to the Script

1.      The ancient Turkish Script was the written language of Turkish Khan Regime (552 –744) and the Uygur Khan Regime (744-840). It is similar to ancient German Luni Script in the style and called Luni Turkish Script; and the stone tablet with this kind of script was found from the valleys of the Orhon River and Jenisej River, thus also called Orhon-Jenisej Script. It is a kind of phonemic and syllabic script, and there are 38-40 letters in this system, having 4 vowels and the others are consonants. And regarded as it was originated from Arami Script.

2.      The table of Turkish Letters

3.      The Yekhe Jasag (the supper law): Genghis Khan in his life time, according to Mongolian traditional law, declared a system of supper law, called the Yekhe Jasag. In the Taizong Record in the History of Yuan Dynasty, said “the Yekhe Jasag, in Chinese it means the supper law.” And Yuan Empire continued to carry out the supper law of the ancestors. Unfortunately the Yekhe Jasag had already lost and only found its some parts in the books of A History of the World Conqueror, the Collections of the History and The History of the Egypt.

4.      2 Photos of Both Positive and Negative Sides of the Antique

 

A PATE OF GOLDEN TIGER

Number: one  the Serial Number: G-000003

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) length 19.7cm, width 11.7cm, (an important antique that have successfully read and explained)

Appendix:

1. Introduction to the Article and the Script:

The Mongol Yuan Empire has a discipline that aristocrats ought to wear kinds of plates. Such as the first class noble officer ought to wear a golden tiger plate, the second ought to wear a golden plate and the third to wear a silver one. On the positive and negative sides of the tiger plate, there have the lucky cloud design and Uygurjin Mongolian Scripts on the edges, and Chinese inscription on the positive and Kidan Small Character and Mongol Sulde Spirit are on the negative side. It certainly belongs to the first class noble officer plate.

2.  The Kidan Character: In 902 AD, the Kidan State created the Kidan Big Characters, and later created the Kidan Small Characters according to Chinese Characters, and conserved square shapes of Chinese Characters and spelling methods. After the Jin State destroyed the Liao State, the Kidan Characters was not used any more and gradually disappeared.

3.      The Inscription Reading

4.      2 Photos of Parts of the Inscription of the Article

 

AN ANIMAL STATUE STAMP OF TURKISH AND UYGUR SCRIPT

Number: one  the Serial Number: G-000005

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height 2.6cm, bottom area 3.7cm ╳ 3.2cm, ( an antique that have successfully read and explained) flat-square shaped, Turkish and Uygurjin Mongolian inscriptions are on the stamp face, and a keeling statue of lucky animal is on the back, should belong to the princess and marquises.

Appendix:

1.      The Stamp Rubbing

5.      2 Photographs of Parts of the Inscription of the Article

 

THE SIVER PAGODA

Number: one  the Serial Number: G-000002

The article description: (the Mongol Yuan Empire) height 51cm, length of octagonal edge 8cm.

Appendix:

1.      8 Photos of the Inscription Reading

2.      3 Photographs of Parts of the Inscription of the Article

 

A FINE SILVER VASE WITH ANCIENT PERSIAN AND HAIRPIN FLOWER AND TIDE DESIGNS

Number: one  the Serial Number: S-0000014

The article description: (the Mongol Yuan Empire) height 33.1cm, caliber 5.4cm, bottom diameter 8.5cm.

Appendix:

1.      1 Photo of the Inscription Reading

2.      5 Photos of Parts of the Inscription of the Article

3.      The Persian Script: the early Persian Script was a cuneiform (6th century B.C. ), and it was developed into the Mid-ancient Persian Script. It is a kind of alphabetic written language, having 32 letters, of which 28 are Arab Letters and only 4 are Persian Letters.

4.      The Table of the Persian Letters

 

A POT AND COVER WITH SANSKRIT UYGURJIN MONGOLIAN

Number: one  the Serial Number: G-000015

The article description: (the Mongol Yuan Empire) height 16.6cm, caliber 11.6cm, bottom diameter 10.2cm.

Appendix:

1.  1 Photo of the Inscription on the Pot Bottom

2.      5 Photos of the Sanskrit Inscription

3.      2 Photographs of Parts of the Inscription of the Article

4.      The Sanskrit Letters: came from Parim Letters and through the long run of its changes, formed the Tiancheng Style Sanskrit Letters and is being used to the modern time. The letter consists of 13 vowels and 33 consonants.

5.      The Table of the Sanskrit Letters

 

Series 2   The Pagsba Script and the Other Ancient Scripts

Antiques on Display:  Total       Items

Appendixes:         Total       Items

Appendixes:

1.       A Portrait of Pagsba (jade)

Pagsba (1235-1280) was the founder of the Saja sect of Tibetan Buddhism, the first Teacher of the Empire. His former name was Lobsanjalsan?. With his uncle came over and pledge to allegiance to Mongolia, settled in Xiliang (present Wuwei of Gansu province). In 1253, Kublai Khan ordered him coming beside him and converted to Buddhism. In 1260, he was honored as Guoshi (the Teacher of the State). In 1264, he was appointed as the General Officer in charging of whole Yuan Buddhist affairs and administration of Tibet. And he created the New Mongolian Script (or Pagsba Script), and it was in practice in 1269 by Kublai Khan. The next year, he was promoted as Dishi (the Teacher of the Empire), Dabao Fawang (the King of the Buddhist Supper Law). His followers and students brought the skills of Tibetan modeling art and took the technologies of woodcut printing of China into Tibet at the same time. He played an important role to the central government of Yuan, improving its administration of Tibet and the exchange of Chinese and Tibetan cultures.

2.       The Table of the Pagsba Letters (page 497, Uygurjin Mongolian Documents)

3.       The Table of the Tibetan Letters (page 134, Introduction)

4.       The Tibetan Script: a living script, which is used in Tibet. According to the historical books, TUMISAMBO? Created the script in the seventeenth century, based on Sanskrit letters. It has 30 consonants and 4 vowels; there are different symbols for the vowel O [a], written from left to right direction, and some other syllable connecting methods for compound letters.

5.       A Broad Notes for Mongolian Family Names (page 263, the Volume of the Northern Area, China Minorities)

6.       Inscriptions in Six Different Kinds of Scripts (page 265, the Volume of the Northern Area, China Minorities)

 

A SILVER AND JADE SPRING POT

Number: one  the Serial Number: S-000019

The article description: (the Mongol Yuan Empire) height 64.5cm, caliber 9.8cm, some inscriptions are on the bottleneck in raised words, written as Fatian Qiyun (Building a Regime by the Idea of the Heaven).

Appendix:

1.  Fatian Qiyun Documents on Display from the History of Yuan

2.  2 Photos of the Inscription

3.  4 Photos of Parts of the Inscription of the Article

 

A GOLDEN SILVER STUPA PAGODA

Number: one  the Serial Number: S-000001

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height 92.2cm, the length of the octagonal edges 12.3cm. Two kinds of inscriptions are on the raised middle part of the pagoda, it has an octagonal edged outer silver box with golden flower designs and a turret Buddhist shrine is put in the inner silver box with petal designs in the pagoda.

Appendix:

1.  8 Photos of the Inscription

2.  4 Photos of Parts of the Inscription of the Article

 

A SILVER BOWL

Number: one  the Serial Number: S-000017

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height 7cm, caliber 17.1cm.

Appendix: 4 Photos of the Inscription

 

BRONZE EARRINGS WITH SNASKRIT SCRIPT

Number: a set of two  the Serial Number: S?-000030

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height 3.1cm, caliber 10.3cm. Height 3.1cm, caliber 9.3cm

Appendix: 1 Photo of the Sanskrit Inscription

 

A GOLDEN SILVER ORDER PLATE WITH PAGSBA SCRIPT

Number: one  the Serial Number: S-000004

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) length 26.3cm, width 8cm. Silver plate, golden words, two lines of Pagsba words are on one side and three lines of Pagsba words are on the other side. It is one of the best discovered Order Plates. When Genghis Khan ascending the throne, let the Shaman do a serial of magic arts, and showed that he building a regime by the idea of the heaven and having the same sacred position with the Eternal Heaven. On the plate, it says ”taking advantage of the power of the Eternal Heaven, the name of the emperor is saint and inviolable, those who no respecting and obedient have to be punished with death.”(page 43, volume 8, the Civilization Fax of China )

Appendix: 2 Photos of the Positive and Negative Sides

 

A BRONZE COIN OF THE GOLDEN LIGHTS OF THE SUN AND THE MOON

Number: one  the Serial Number: Br-000042

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) external diameter 2.5cm, there are some Syrian scripts on the negative side.

Appendix:

1. An introduction the origin of the Syrian Script: the Syrian Script is developed from the Arami Script. About 4-6th centuries AD, the script used in the native land, in the 7th century it was declined by the limitation of the Arab Script. During the Tang Dynasty, the Syrian Script was introduced into China along the Silk Road, and it was still used during the Mongol Yuan Empire period. At Yuan Dynasty, it was the common written language of the nestron?, or used as a transcribing letters for Turkish.

2. 1 Photo of the Syrian Inscription

 

A GOLD COIN OF THE PROSPEROUS SAINT RELIGION

Number: one  the Serial Number: G-000043

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) external diameter 2.2cm.

Appendix: 1 Photo of the Negative Side of the Article

 

A SILVER ORNAMENT NECKLACE

Number: one  the Serial Number: S-000035

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height 6.2cm.

Appendix: 1 Photo of the Negative Side of the Article

 

A BRONZE SLIDING WEIGHT

Number: a set of five  the Serial Number: Br-000024

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height 11.1cm, weight 1240g, made in the Dadu Road in the third year of the Emperor Yanyou. Height 10cm, weight 810g, made in the Baoding Road in the second year of the Emperor Yannzhen. Height 10.2cm, weight 680g, made in the Dadu Road in the seventh year of the Emperor Dade. Height 10.1cm, weight 760g, made in the Dadu Road in the thirty-first year of the Emperor Zhiyuan. Height 9.5cm, weight 570g, made in the Dadu Road in the tenth year of the Emperor Zhizheng.

Appendix: 11 Photos of the inscriptions of the height 11.1cm, weight 1240g, made in the Dadu Road in the third year of the Emperor Yanyou.

 

A BRONZE SILIDING WEIGHT

Number: a set of two  the Serial Number: Br-000023

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height 15cm, weight 3300g, made by the government in the fourth year of the Emperor Zhizheng.

Appendix: 2 Photos of the Article

 

A BRONZE SILIDING WEIGHT OF 12.5 KILOGRAMS

Number: one  the Serial Number:

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height 10cm, weight 650g, made by the government in the first year of the Emperor Zhizheng.

Appendix: 4 Photos of the Article

 

AN OFFICIAL STAMP OF THE JINGZHOU ROAD

Number: one  the Serial Number: Br-000038

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) ladder shaped, length 19.5cm, the top width 7.6cm, the bottom width 8.6cm. The inscription written as it was made by the government in the first year of the Emperor Zhizheng.

Appendix: A Rubbing

 

A BRONZE COMFUTION STAMP

Number: one  the Serial Number: Br-000049

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) edge length 5.8cm, square shaped.

Appendix: A Rubbing

 

A WOODEN COMFUTION STAMP

Number: one  the Serial Number: W-000050

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) edge length 6.6cm, square shaped.

Appendix: 6 Rubbings of the Six Sides

 

A BRONZE STAMP WITH PAGSBA SCRIPTS

Number: a set of eight  the Serial Number: Br-000047

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) edge length 4.55cm, square shaped; Length 3.5cm, width 2.4cm; Length 3.6cm, width 2.1cm; Length 2.2cm, width 2.1cm; the edge length 1.7cm, square shaped; the edge length 1.7cm, square shaped; the edge length 2cm, square shaped; the edge length 1.3cm, square shaped.

Appendix: 8 Rubbings

 

A BRONZE PLATE WITH MONSTER DESIGN

Number: a set of five  the Serial Number: Br-000040

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) length 7.9cm, width 2.6cm; Length 7.1cm, width 2.2cm; Length 6.7cm, width 2.2cm; Length 7.4cm, width 2.1cm; Length 6.2cm, width 2.6cm; Length 3.5cm, width 2.6cm.

Appendix: 12 Photos of the Positive and Negative Sides of the Article

 

AN ORNAMENTAL PLATE WITH SYRIAN SCRIPT

Number: one  the Serial Number: Br-000045

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) length 2.55cm, width 2.2cm.

Appendix:

1. The Table of the Syrian Script (116 pages of introduction to Uygur documents)

2. 2 Photos of the Positive and Negative Sides of the Article

 

A BRONZE WINE ORDER PLATE

Number: a set of two  the Serial Number: Br-000041

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) length 3.5cm, width 2.6cm; Length 4.5cm, width 3cm.

Appendix: 4 Photos of the Positive and Negative Sides of the Article

 

A BRONZE MIRROR

Number: one  the Serial Number: Br-000085

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) diameter 9.4cm, made in the seventh year of Zhiyuan, the inscription written as ”the house will be full of gold and jade, the man will be long-lived and rich.” The mirror has thin and flat body, some raised edges and hemisphere handle. There is Chinese inscription on the inner circle and Pagsba inscription on the outer circle.

Appendix: 1 Photo of the Inscriptions of the Article

 

A POT WITH BLACK FLOWERS ON WHITE BACKGROUND AND JURCHIN CHARACTERS FROM THE BACUNYAO RELICS

Number: one  the Serial Number: C-000095

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) length 38.9cm, the top neck 10cm, and the bottom neck 9.5cm. There are fifteen lines of Jurchin inscriptions on the pot neck and below the pot neck. The archeologist read them as Flower in fifteen different kinds of handwritings in Jurchin Script.

Appendix: 5 Photos of the Inscriptions of the Word Flower in Jurchin

 

Category II

Weapons

Antiques on display: total     items

Appendix: total       items

Introduction to the Unite: The Mongol Empire conquered the world with arrows and horses; consequently they very attached importance to weapons and their manufacturing. And also they paid attention to recruit the skilled craftsmen and improved the manufacturing and armed forces. At the same time, carried out a rewarding policy in witch providing high salary to the high officials for whose new inventions, and made the manufacturing technology of the weapon improved rapidly as the lead of the world. The Cold Weapon was the most important weapon of the army of Yuan Dynasty. The cavalry unit was the first force and the infantry was the second one of Mongolian forces, so the bows and arrows are the main weapon of them and win with the strong bows with many arrows in a shot. And they were also popular in use such as javelins, knives, axes, swords and hammers etc., and they have protective devices such as leather armor with iron pieces and shield. The firearms of the Yuan Dynasty had a new improvement based on the firearms of Zong and Jin Dynasties. Especially based on the firelock or fire barrel, developed two kinds of bronze fire barrel, such as handling barrel and the bowl mouthed barrel, thus started the development of the modern firelocks. The harness of the cavalry, as an important part of weapons of the Mongol Yuan Empire, was paid high attention and produced some high skilled and beautiful products.

Appendixes on display:

1.      The Map of the Conquest

2.      Harness Background Design

3.      Bowl-mouthed Firelock Background Design

4.      The Baercha? Firelock Background Design

 

Series 1   Military Order Signs

Antiques on Display: total 2 items

Appendix: total     items

 

A PRONZE PATROL PLATE

Number: one  the Serial Number: Br-000033

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height 17.7cm, width 13.2cm, and thickness about 0.5cm. In Chinese, Pagsba, Uygurjin Mongolian and Persian, the words are written as Patrol by Order Of the Emperor.

Appendix:

1.  1 Photo of Parts of the Inscription of the Article

2.  A Map of the Post-system of Yuan Army

 

AN ARMY ORDER PLATE OF PASSING THROUGH

Number: one  the Serial Number: Br-000037

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height 10.7cm, width 9cm. In Chinese, Pagsba, Uygurjin Mongolian and Persian, the words are written as Order, Allowing Passing Through.

Appendix: 1 Photo of the Inscriptions in Four Kinds of Scripts in the Article

 

Series 2   Metallic Weapons

Antiques on Display: total   items

Appendix: total     items

Appendixes on display:

1.      Pictures of Mongol Officials and Soldiers

2.      Pictures of Metallic Weapons

 

A BRONZE HAMMER

Number: one  the Serial Number: Br-000067

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) length 90cm, it also called as the Bronze Head with Iron Handle.

Introduction: the Bronze Hammer also known as the Garlic Headed Stick, that is the garlic shaped head was set to a top of the wooden or iron stick, it is a kind of heavy weapon, often used to armed with Mongol army, and also used as a ceremonial stick at the same time.

Appendix:

1. 1 Photo of the Article

2. 1 Photo of the Yuan Tomb Wall Paintings from Beiyukou, Wenshui County, Shanxi Province.

3.      The picture of the Garlic Headed Stick (page 174, A History of Chinese Military Affairs)

 

AN IRON SPEARHEAD

Number: one  the Serial Number: I-000066

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) length 45.5cm, interface caliber 3.3cm. It was a common weapon for infantry, was usually set on a top of a stick.

Appendix: 1 Photo of the Article

 

THE TIEBAERCHA? JAVELIN

Number: two  the Serial Number: Ir-000069

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) the longer javelin 202.6cm, the shorter one 170cm.

Introduction: there are two kinds of javelin that most commonly used by Mongol armies, the longer javelin called Qihuda or Baercha ?, having a length about three meters, blades in the two sides, can be used for throwing and holding. The shorter one called The Three Tailed Javelin, as there are three blades attached to the shaft bottom sides, producing the function of arrow shaft feathers. These were mostly used for throwing or stabbing the enemies.

Appendix:

1. 6 Photos of the Article

2. Persian Pictures

3. Pictures of Javelins of Yuan Dynasty (page 189, volume 182, A History of Chinese Military Affairs)

 

AN IRON SWORD

Number: two  the Serial Number: Ir-000068

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) length 78.5cm; Length 45.6cm.

Appendix:

1. Persian Pictures

2. 4 Photos of the Article

 

AN IRON BROADSWORD

Number: one  the Serial Number: Ir-000072

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) length 88.2cm. The word Yuan was stamped near the handle.

Introduction: the Mongolian broadsword called Huandao, means hemi-ring shaped. But its shape has been not clear. In A Brief History of the Black Tatars said, “the Huandao was imitated from Hotong sword, light and sharp, with a small and flat handle.” Mongol army was usually using swords for a hand-to-hand fight. Axes are also common weapon for close quarters. The axe blade width: seven cun, the stick length: three chi, five cun. Axes and swords were used at the same time in an assault. There are two kinds of axes, such as Miaofu and Lianfu.

Appendix:

1. 3 Photos of the Article

2. A picture of the Hemi-ring Shaped Sword (pages 162, volume 172, A History of Chinese Military Affairs)

3. A Picture of the Axe (pages 176, volume 169, A History of Chinese Military Affairs)

 

A BOW MADE OF RATTAN AND OX HORN

Number: one  the Serial Number: Z-000070

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) the bow length 192cm. The bowstring length: 112cm. In the backside of the bow, inlaid two pieces of ox horn that 65cm in length and 5.5cm in width. Museum of Qinghai Province collected a same bow, but it is broken and smaller than this one. It is a very rare bow.

Appendix:

1. 3 Photos of the Article

2. A Picture with Names of the Parts of the Bow (page 35, A History of Chinese Military Affairs)

 

A N OX HORN BOW WITH DRAGON DESIGN

Number: one  the Serial Number: Z-000071

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) the bow length 186.2cm. The bowstring length: 127cm. Width: 4.6cm. On the two sides of the bow, there embedded a dragon design made of ox horn.

Introduction: bow and arrow are most common used long-range weapons of the minorities of the Northern China. There are different kinds of bows, such as Makeda? Bow, Kama? Bow and the Sheep Horn Bow. After destroying of the Zong State, by the order of the Mongols, the bow craftsman of the Zong created a bow called the Shenfeng Bow, with it could shoot as far as eight hundred steps. Mongolians have a custom of good at studying the good qualities of other people, thus they successfully conquered the largest territory in the history.

Appendix:

1. 1 Photo of the Article

2. Pictures of the Madake Bow and the Kaman Bow (page 181, A Military History)

3. An Ancient Painting of the Shooting Skills of the Turning Back and Looking at the Moon ( page 55, Notes of the Mongolian March and a War History of the Grassland Empire )

 

IRON SOUNDING ARROWS

Number: a set of eight  the Serial Number: Br-000073

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty)

Introduction: the whistling arrows are a kind of message sending instrument for distance contact in military. It is consisted of bone body, iron tip and iron interface. In advantage of the wind of a flying arrow, it produces whistling sound and sending massage or alarm.

Appendix: 1 Photograph of the Article

 

IRON ARMORS

Number: a set of ninety-four  the Serial Number: Ir-000065

The article description: (the Mongol Yuan Empire) height: ? cm; The blades height: 10cm; Width: 2.5cm.

Introduction: Mongolian army armor was considered as the best armor of the time, including Willow Leaf Shaped Armor and Iron Ring Armor (six layers of leather). The cavalry wore kind of armor with iron web (also called the Armor with Locked Chains), was made of a series of iron wires, bronze wires chained with iron blades, and leaned with ox leather and the blades chained as fish scales so that the arrow couldn’t penetrate it.

Appendix:

1. 2 Photos of the Article

2. Pictures of the Article

3. A Sectional Drawing of Mongolian Armor

 

Series 3   Firearms

Antiques on display: total     items

Appendix: total       items

Introduction: China is the earliest discoverer of the gunpowder in the world. And also, it is regarded as the first country of using with firearms. At the period of the Mongol Yuan Empire, firearms were so broadly used and acknowledged about the burning, exploding and radiating characteristics of the gunpowder. Based on the usage of gunpowder experiences of the Zong State, Jin State and the Western Xia State, they developed more advanced firearms, such as Fire Barrel and Hotong Canon. Therefore, they helped the acceleration of the development of metallic weapons into firearms. The usage of the firearm has changed the Europe and the world.

 

A BOWL MOUTHED FIRE-BARREL

Number: one  the Serial Number: Br-000062

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) length: 34.7cm, the outside caliber: 10.2cm, the inside caliber: 9.2cm, the wall thickness: about 0.5cm, the bore depth: about 27.5cm. There are cut two columns of Pagsba Script, were read as “in the second year of the Emperor Dade, counted just eight at Tieelie? ”. Dade is the reigh title of Chengzong Emperor of the Yuan Dynasty. The second year of the Dade is 1298. There set a level axle with a hole on the end, it has same function with the sighting device of later canon, by it easy to set up the barrel and take aim.

Introduction: it is widely accepted by Chinese and the Western scholars, the bronze barrel of Yuan Dynasty is the earliest iron barrel firearm of the world. There were two kinds of bronze barrels at the time of Yuan Dynasty—one is for a single shoulder using it with hands, the other with a bowl mouth, is set on a shelf when firing. These are considered as the ancestors of firelock and canon. Among the discovered Yuan period bronze firearms, the earliest one that has clear age and with a bowl mouth is stored in the China History Museum, on which some words were written as made it in the third of year of Yuan Shunzhi Emperor (1322), the very one is considered as the earliest firearm of China and the world. But a new similar one has a bowl mouth is discovered from Inner Mongolia recently, the inscription written as it was made in the second year of Yuan Dade Emperor (1298), it is 34 years earlier from the that of Yuan Shunzhi Emperor barrel, and it is regarded as the earliest one in China and in the world, among those we have discovered.

The bowl mouthed bronze barrel was used in attacking a city or defending a city. Usually it was used together with the stone-throwing machines. When Kublai Khan attacking two times with Japan (in 1274 and 1281), the Yuan armies used iron firearms in both times. Japanese painter, Zhuqi Jizhang, attended those wars and saw that Yuan army firing some firearms. After the war, he drew the firing aspects of the war in his paintings. (Picture 84, page 110, A History of Chinese Military Affairs)

Appendix:

1. 2 Photos of the Article

2. The Fangshan firearm, discovered from Fangshan area, Beijing. It was cast in the third year of Yuan Zhishun Emperor (1332); the clear making age was cast on the barrel body.

3. A Painting of Firing of the Barrel Firearm.

4. A Picture of Xiangyang Firearm of Yuan Period

5.      A Section Picture of the Firearm.

 

THE BRONZE FIRE-BARREL

Number: one  the Serial Number: Br-000063

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) total length: 36.8cm. Caliber: 3.5cm. Length of the back vault: 5.5cm. Length of the gunpowder room: about 7.4cm.

Introduction: if the bronze fire-barrel of Yuan Period is compared to the firearms of the same period, the most difference is not having a broad open front body. In order to strengthening the barrel body, the maker attached several iron rings around it, and a larger part for the gunpowder room. But having the same size from the powder room to the mouth. In this kind of design, make the power of the gas flow from the explosion of the powder completely used on the pellet shooting. And has a less powder usage compared to the others. Therefore, shouldn’t be afraid of the exploding possibility of the bore and jetting gas problems. And also can put several pellets at a time. It is said that its longest range is about 180 meters. The firing sound also has a rather threatening effect. A kind of blasting string used for the igniting, the fuse directly goes into the fire hole on the top of the powder room. It was known as “penetrating everything by shooting and shocking the nine heavens by sounding”.

Appendix: 2 Photos of the Article

(to be continued)

source: http://bdelger.blog.163.com

Treasures of the Great Yuan Empire (2)

(translated from Chinese into English by Delger)

THE JILI PROCELAIN GRENADE

Number: a set of four  the Serial Number: C-000064

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) diameter: 7.2–13cm. Gunpowder is put inside and its explosion injures the enemies.

Introduction: the porcelain grenade is the earliest grenade in the world. It was one of the most favorite weapons of the Mongol army. This kind of exploding weapon was invented by the Jin State; the porcelain was used as the powder container. The Zong State developed the container with iron and Mongolians improved its exploding power and known as the Zhentianlei, means the Shocking Heaven Thunder. In this kind of weapon, put gunpowder inside and igniting it with a fuse, the smaller one would be thrown by hand and the bigger one thrown by a stone-throwing machine, and in advantage of the shock wave and the fire, killing the enemies. The ignorant enemy or horses are extremely threatened by its terrible sounding. (Page 55, Notes of the Mongolian March and a War History of the Grassland Empire)

Appendix: 2 Photos of the Article

 

Series 4   Harness

Antiques on display: total     items

Appendix: total       items

Introduction: Mongolian cavalry, according to its equipment, divided into the heavy cavalry and the light cavalry. A heavy cavalry soldier should prepare two horses, several assistants, a uniform of helmet and armor, a bow and some arrows and sword by himself. And every five soldiers bring a tent. A light cavalry soldier should prepare two horses, a bow and some arrows, a quiver, a sword, a javelin, a hammer, ten arrow heads, a leather bag, a back-bag, needle and thread and fire making instrument, etc. And every eighteen soldiers bring a tent. Mongolian army officer, Head of the Ten Families, should prepare five horses, a tent, a ring-chained armor, a sword and a bow and arrows; a Head of the One Hundred Families, should prepare ten horses, a tent, an armor, a sword, a stick, a mallet, a bow and arrows; a Head of the One Thousand Families, should prepare over one hundred horses, a tent (with upturned eaves), a ring-chained armor, a javelin, a bow and arrows and a quiver. When going to the battle, all of them should bring the relative soldiers and slaves. When a Mongolian Khan going on a fight, the guards protect him and guards are divided into the groups of guards with sword, with hammer, with stick, with bows and arrows and with iron armors. And the guard group with knives on left side, with swords on the right side, and wearing ring-chained armor, leather helmet, with bows and arrows is considered a special guard group and even their horses are made-up in a different way.

Mongolians have a high regard for horses since, known as the People on Horse Back. They are nomadic people and conquered the world on the back of horses and have written their history on the back of the horses, too. Therefore, Mongolian Horse Back Civilization is the richest horse culture history in the world. The saddle has a history of two thousand years; the earliest saddle was made of some leather. The basic harness of a battle horse is consisting of a saddle, bellyband, stirrup and the Zhangni of horse belly protector. Thus make the battle horse become part of the soldier and powerful. The saddle which was used in the Mongol Yuan period, is practical and with more noble ornaments.

 

A WOODEN SADDLE WITH CARVED GOLDEN FLOWERS

Number: one  the Serial Number: Br-000075

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 33cm. Length: 60cm. Width: 38cm. The most distinguished characters of the saddle of the Mongol Yuan Empire: square front and back heads with cloud designs, and usually made of wood with bronze, gold, golden or silver pieces decorated along the edges. The designs are mostly in carving flowers. Some saddles are decorated with precious stones or leather.

Appendix:

1.  7 Photos of the Article by Parts

2.  A Diagrammatic Sketch of the Saddle

3.  Mongolian Terra Cottas (P48, Fax)

4.  3 Photos of the Horse Culture

 

A GOLDEN BRONZE HARNESS ORNAMENTS

Number: a set of fifty-six  the Serial Number: Br-000080  a set of 6 bronze horse bells

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) these ornament include harnesses with carved cloud designs, such as headstall, front and back mantle and the chest plate.

Appendix:

1.  6 Photos of the Article by Parts

2.  1 Photo of the Bronze Horse Bell

 

AN IRON AND SILVER BIT

Number: one  the Serial Number: Ir-000076

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) length: 26.5cm.

Appendix:

1.  2 Photos of the Article by Parts

 

AN IRON STIRUP WITH A DRAGON BITING PEARALS

Number: a set of two  the Serial Number: Ir-000077

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 23.5 cm, bottom width: 13.5cm.

Introduction: stirrup is an important harness which connecting soldier and the horse. Once you have the saddle, you can sit or stand on the horseback, so that can liberate your hands, and improving the fighting capacity and stability on the horseback. The historians said that the invention of the stirrup is a big progress of human history.

Appendix:

1.  1 Photo of the Article

2.  1 Photo of the Stirrup

3           A Diagrammatic Sketch of the Stirrup on a Horse

4           A Diagrammatic Sketch of the Stirrup

 

Category III  HANDCRAFTS

Antiques on display: total     items

Appendix: total       items

Instruction to the category: the queens and the relatives or nobles of the Mongol Yuan Empire, having a great interest to the handcrafts. Therefore, a large number of workshops were built by palace, mostly crowded around the Dadu Capital. The palace and government products are of clear aesthetics standards of Mongols and their customs. The main products include silk and felt, gold and silver and jade. And fine and luxury ones are their most favorable items. In some workshops were mostly depending on some Hotong craftsmen, manufacturing Muslim kinds of products, and these are the main characteristics of the palace and government handcrafts. The folk handcrafts were not so developed, its common products were the silk, porcelain, and the painted utensils are second, the more prosperous workshops were mostly in Zhejiang area, the most famous products and the craftsman were from the area, too.

Appendix:

1.       A Plane of the Empire Capital

2.       A Map of Sea Trade of the Yuan Period

3.       A Map of the Defense Wall

4.       A Group of Mongolian Felt Tents

5.       A Background Picture of Dragon Sculpture of Yuan Period

6.       A Background Picture of Knitting Machine of Yuan Period

 

Series 1   Gold and Silver Utensils

Antiques on display: total     items

Appendix: total       items

Introduction: there was a custom in which people were very fond of gold and silver in the period of the Mongol Yuan Empire, regarded as “the gold is the most expensive subject among the five kinds of metals”. Therefore, those articles are all made of gold, such as daily utensils used for food and drinking, clothing ornaments, harness, weapon, burial items, sacrificing or religious objects and the other tools. The making skills of gold and silver wares from the Tang and Liao States, the west and the middle Asia, approached its high development at the period of the Mongol Yuan Empire, so the shapes and designs of the utensils showing a cultural character of the colorful grassland culture mixed together with the other cultures.

Appendix: Pictures of Gold and Silver Utensils and Their Usage

 

A SILVER POTRAIT OF THE GODESS

Number: one  the Serial Number:

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty)

Appendix:  ? Photos of the article

 

A GOLDEN KNEADED THREAD WITH GOLD BLADES

Number: a set of eleven  the Serial Number: G-000006

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) the cloud shaped, height: 11cm, width: 13cm, thickness 0.4cm. One with four lucky edges, the edge length: 8.4cm. Triangle, height: 6.7cm, width: 6.4cm. Triangle broken leaf, height: 6cm, width: 5.9cm. Square leaf, length: 4.5 cm, width: 3.6cm.

Introduction: the kneaded thread is made of gold threads and welded with the gold blades, on the crossing of the designs; some precious stones or diamond were decorated with it. The kneaded thread technology was originated from the West, became ripe skills in the fifth or sixth centuries. At the period of the Mongol Yuan Empire, a large number of middle and west Asian craftsmen were emigrated to China and Mongolia; the kneaded thread making skills also was brought and adopted. On the surface of the antique, the grass designs are made of scrolled gold threads and fixed on the different gold blades that have different flower shapes, and flower designs on the backside and precious stone decorations are in the pistils and stamens. The art style is luxurious and elegant, considered as the super ornament among the golden jewelry.

Appendix:  4 Photos of the Article

 

AN ORNAMENT OF A GOLD BELT

Number: a set of twenty-two  the Serial Number: G-000011

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) rectangle, length: 8.5cm, width: 4.6cm, height: 0.9cm. Heart shaped, length: 5.6cm. Small rectangle, length: 4.8cm, width: 2.3cm. Belt head block, length: 8.5cm, width: 4.2cm. Block button, length: 10cm, width: 4.7cm. An appendix, length: 5cm, width: 4.7cm. Belt lock, length: 6cm, width: 4.4cm. Belt hoop, length: 5cm, width: 3.7cm.

Appendix:  4 Photos of the Article

 

AN OX LEATHER BELT WITH GOLD DECORATIONS

Number: a set of twenty-nine  the Serial Number: G-000012

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) length: 93cm.

Appendix:  2 Photos of the Article

 

A GOLDEN SILVER ORNAMENT WITH PARROT DESIGN

Number: a set of two  the Serial Number: S-000036

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 12cm.

Appendix:  2 Photos of the article

 

GOLD AND SILVER HEAD ORNAMENTS

Number: a set of seven  the Serial Number: G-000032

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) gold earrings, height: 4.3cm. Five kinds of gold and silver hairpin, length: 14—18cm.

Appendix: 3 Photos of the Article

 

A GOLD SPOON

Number: one  the Serial Number: G-000010

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 5.5cm, caliber: 14cm.

Appendix:  2 Photos of the Article

 

A HIGH LEG POLISHED GOLD CUP WITH SCROLLED GRASS DESIGNS

Number: one  the Serial Number: G-000008

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 12.1cm, caliber: 9.8cm. A bit open at the rim part, a round corrugation, scrolled grass designs on the rim, deeper inner room, lotus designs on the body, round foot with a tall leg connected with the loudspeaker shaped part, and the article is considered as a utensil of Mongolian noble class.

Appendix:  2 Photos of the Article

 

A HIGH LEG GOLD CUP WITH SCROLLED GRASS DESIGNS

Number: one  the Serial Number: G-000007

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 14.4cm, caliber: 10cm. Scrolled grass designs on the rim edge and the leg. The flower designs are sumptuous, and the article is considered as a utensil of Mongolian noble class.

Appendix:  2 Photos of the Article

 

A GOLD EARRING

Number: one  the Serial Number: G-000009

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 3.2cm, caliber: 7.8cm. It looks like a small hat, lotus leaf designs on the rim edge, a peony design twined around the ear part and the inner part, and the article is considered as an ornament of Mongolian Khanate noble class.

Appendix:  4 Photos of the Article

 

A SILVER SPOON

Number: one  the Serial Number: S-000016

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 5cm, caliber: 13.7cm.

Appendix:  1 Photo of the Article

 

Series 2   Bronze and Iron Utensils

Antiques on display: total     items

Appendix: total       items

Introduction: there was a very quick development of smelting at the Mongol Yuan Empire period; the appearance of the iron utensils, made the smelting business came into a period of coal used as new fuel. The wrought iron refining technology came from the west to Yuan. There was a very broad use of daily products and ornaments were made of wrought iron. Such as Mongolian knives, flint hammer, awl and iron ornamental plates.

Appendix: A Map of Handcrafts Workshop (the Dadu Capital of Yuan)

 

A TRIPOD WITH TWO LOOP HANDLES AND CLOUD DESIGNS

Number: one  the Serial Number: Ir-000052

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 85cm, caliber: 66cm. Sharp three legs, two opposite loop handles on the rim, scrolled grass designs on the body, is a kind of sacrificial article of Yuan period.

Appendix:  2 Photos of the Article

 

A SET OF BRONZE SPOONS

Number: a set of eight  the Serial Number: Br-000031

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 3.9cm, caliber: 10.5cm. Height: 3.8cm, caliber: 10cm. Height: 3.7cm, caliber: 9.9cm. Height: 3.6cm, caliber: 9.7cm. Height: 3.5cm, caliber: 9.5cm. Height: 3.4cm, caliber: 9.3cm. Height: 3.3cm, caliber: 9.1cm. Height: 3.1cm, caliber: 8.9cm.

Appendix:  2 Photos of the Article

 

A MOLD OF BRONZE AND SILVER COINS

Number: one  the Serial Number: Br-000028

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 7.2cm. After the Mongol Yuan becoming an empire, had developed the monetary economy, issued different kinds of currency and coins.

Appendix:  1 Photo of the Article

 

A BRONZE ANIMAL SHAPED WEIGHT

Number: a set of eleven  the Serial Number: Ir-000021

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 7.3cm, weight: 320gram. Height: 6.8cm, weight: 310gram. Height: 6.8cm, weight: 300gram. Height: 4.1cm, weight: 260gram. Height: 5.3cm, weight: 162gram. Height: 4cm, weight: 100gram. Height: 4cm, weight: 81gram. Height: 4cm, weight: 81gram. Height: 4cm, weight: 81gram. Height: 3.9cm, weight: 81gram. Height: 3.8cm, weight: 81gram

Appendix:  2 Photos of the article

 

A BIRD SHAPED WEIGHT

Number: a set of sixteen  the Serial Number: Br-000022

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 5.3cm, weight: 310gram. Height: 5.2cm, weight: 155gram. Height: 4.5cm, weight: 155gram. Height: 4.1cm, weight: 80gram. Height: 3cm, weight: 80gram. Height: 2.1cm, weight: 80gram. Height: 2.8cm, weight: 48gram. Height: 2.8cm, weight: 50gram. Height: 3.1cm, weight: 50gram. Height: 2.8cm, weight: 50gram. Height: 2.8cm, weight: 50gram. Height: 2.5cm, weight: 21gram. Height: 2.4cm, weight: 24gram. Height: 2.4cm, weight: 24gram Height: 2.2cm, weight: 24gram. Height: 2cm, weight: 24gram

Appendix:  2 Photos of the Article

 

AN IRON SLIDING WEIGHT

Number: a set of two  the Serial Number: Ir-000025

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 10.3cm, weight: 680gram. Height: 10.3cm, weight: 680gram. In order to make sure the trade function normally, the Yuan Dynasty decided a unified standards for the equipments of the weights and measures, and made a lot of measuring equipments as bronze sliding weight.

Appendix:  2 Photos of the Article

 

A GOLDEN BRONZE STATUE

Number: one  the Serial Number: Br-000026

The article description: (the Mongol Yuan Empire) height: 9.9cm.

Appendix:  2 Photos of the Article

 

A MOLD OF BRONZE CHACHA? BUDDHA

Number: one  the Serial Number: Br-000027

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 4.1cm.

Appendix:  2 Photos of the Article

 

BRONZE FIGURES AND ANIMAL SHAPED STAMPS

Number: a set of five  the Serial Number: Br-000048

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 6.5cm. Height: 5cm. Height: 4.7cm. Height: 4.6cm. Height: 1.8cm.

Appendix:  2 Photos of the Article

 

BRONZE SHAMAN FIGURES

Number: a set of twelve  the Serial Number: Br-000029

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 5cm. Height: 5cm. Height: 5cm. Height: 5cm. Height: 4.8cm. Height: 4.5cm. Height: 4.5cm. Height: 4.5cm. Height: 4.5cm. Height: 4.2cm. Height: 4cm. Height: 4cm.

Appendix:  2 Photos of the Article

 

THE NESTRON? BRONZE ORNAMENTAL PLATES

Number: a set of eight  the Serial Number: Br-000044

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 7cm, width: 5.8cm. Height: 5.2cm, width: 5cm.  Height:   cm, width:   cm. Height:   cm, width:   cm. Height:   cm, width:   cm. Height:   cm, width:   cm. Height:   cm, width:   cm. Height:   cm, width:   cm.

Appendix:  2 Photos of the Article

 

Series 3   Jade Articles

Antiques on display: total     items

Appendix: total       items

Introduction: as the jade resources of the western part poured into the interior area, there was a prosperous development of the jade article making industry of the Mongol Yuan Empire, and those were mainly produced in the palace workshops. Although we just found the smaller ones, according to the records of Chengsuishan (present Qionghua Island of Beihai) documents, the palace buildings and decorations that made of jade had more characters of the times. The Dushan Big Jade Pot storing in Tuancheng of Beijing as big as “could contain thirty Dans of wine.” This one is regarded as a largest jade pot used in the palace and an important wine utensil that made in Kublai Khan’s period.

Appendix:

1.      A Diagram of Jade Articles in the Different Classes

2.      A Technical Process of Jade Articles

 

A BELT OF BLUE AND WHITE JADE

Number: a set of thirty-one  the Serial Number: J-000058

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) length: 100.8cm, width: 4.5cm.

Appendix:  4 Photos of the Article

 

AN ORNAMENTAL PLATE OF A JADE BELT

Number: a set of fifteen  the Serial Number: J-000055

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) the big one, length: 7.1cm, width: 4.6cm. The others, length: 4.5cm, width: 3.2cm.

Appendix:  4 Photos of the Article

 

A SPIRAL SHELL ORNAMENT

Number: one  the Serial Number: Z-000056

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 4.1cm, length: 8.4cm.

Appendix:  2 Photos of the Article

 

A JADE ROOF OF A THATCHED COTTAGE

Number: one  the Serial Number: J-000059

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 4.75cm.

Appendix:  2 Photos of the Article

 

A JADE ROOF OF A THATCHED COTTAGE

Number: one  the Serial Number: J-000060

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 4.7cm.

Appendix:  2 Photos of the Article

 

Series 4   The Clothing

Antiques on display: total     items

Appendix: total       items

Introduction: the Mongolian tunic-coat is the most typical coat, with “wrinkled small folds on the waist ”, wearing it at the palace party with a respected Jisun (same chosen color with the guest and the host clothes). Some kinds of fur or cloth used as the special materials, such as marten and fox fur or Nashili ? (some Muslim style golden thread brocade). There have no differences about noble and common clothing at the beginning, but the time of Renzong Emperor of the Mongol Yuan Empire, decided the clothing estate system. But Mongolians were no so limited except using of the dragon and phoenix designs.

Explanations for the Terms:

1. Nashishi ? : a kind of silk made of satin with additional golden threads, also called as “the golden brocade”. The satin usually weaved of weft threads with golden blades or round golden threads. The brocade from Zhenhai, China, considered as the same products that made by Han Chinese and Uygur people at the periods of pre and post-Yuan. Chinese golden silk making started from about the Zhanguo States, it reached a higher developed after the Han Dynasty, and its manufacturing technology became ripe at the Tang and Zong periods. But the real popularity of the golden brocade, begun after Jurchin people conquering the northern part of China, and reached its most prosperous time at the Yuan Dynasty. The usage of multiple colors is the main art style of Tang and Zong silk; therefore, golden and silver threads are used as the main expressing method. The word Nashishi means golden thread in Persian. It is also spelt as NashiShi, NaShisi and Nakeshi.

2. Sadaciqi? : Sadaciqi is a traditional cotton cloth of middle Asia, it is called the western brocade in the documents of Yuan period, it was invented about 6th century, called after the name of Sadala village of Buchara (of present Uzbekistan). It has distinctive features of heaps of nest designs, with birds and amimals.

3. The Kesi silk: one of Chinese traditional silk products. It was originated from the middle of the 7th century AD. It was more popular at the periods of Sui, Tang and Wudai, and reached more developed at Zong Dynasty and popular again at Yuan Dynasty. In this kind of silk, the rough silk thread was used as its warp, and fine silk thread as weft, and a level weaving structure. In the ancient records about the Kesi silk said, “penetrating warp with a cutting weft”. And regarded as it is just talking about this kind of weaving method. In this kind of weaving, between the designs and the background, between the color and another color, left some small holes and broken lines, so that approached the looking of “appreciating the carved pagodas through the holes”. The Zhiyurong?: a kind of fine silk product of Yuan period, it was especially made for the royal family, it was used in weaving portraits of diseased emperor, queen, prince and concubine, for their offerings and sacrifices.

4. Zhuma silk:  Zhuma: a plant name, means ramie, a long living herb. The fabric from its stem is strong and glossy, non-moldy, easy coloring, anti-wrinkle, mostly used in textile, fish net and paper making. In manufacturing of Zhusi silk, the ramie and silk threads are colored first, then weaved together.

Appendix:

1.      A Chart of Golden Brocade and Silk Products

2.      A Picture of a Loom

3.      A Picture of Picking up Mulberries and Spinning

4.      A Picture of Satin Structure

5.      A Picture of Kesi Silk Structure

 

A GOLDEN BROCADE TUNIC WITH BIG SLEEVES AND DOUBLE EAGLE DESIGNS

Number: one  the Serial Number:

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty)

Total length: 160cm, sleeves length after repair about 284cm, width of the lower hem: 180cm. This style of tunic has been found very rare, the sleeves length after repair about 284cm, it is far longer than the 200cm sleeves of the common tunic of that time. But tighter around the sleeves’ rim and having a very large body, the total length of the tunic is 160cm and the width of the lower hem is 180cm, and the later one also wider than a common hem. The tunic has a right front cover with crossed collar, and very large chest part. This should be recognized as what was called the Big Sleeved Clothing of the time, it also called the Big Sleeved Tunic. In the book of the Explanations for Mongol Tatar Notes, describing Mongol women clothes as: “they also have big clothes with big sleeves, as Chinese Hechang coat, with a dragged wide and long hem, two slaves are holding it when she walks”. Other records about Mongolian noble women clothes are found in the book of Xiong Mengxiang’s Xi Jin History About Anecdotes and Customs, “the coat has a very large size, the mouth of the sleeves are very tight…. just about five cun, but larger sleeve body and folded down along the armpits, ties up a violet ribbon round to the back with a vertical ties, when she walks some girl servant holds the hem for her, this kind of coat considered as a ceremonial tunic”. These notes are very identical with the article. Therefore, we can confirm the coat is the noblest clothing of the Mongolian noble women. The materials used for the tunic, considered as two kinds of Nashishi cloth. The material used for the main part of the tunic is golden brocade with double eagle designs, the eagle height is 38cm, a line of words are written on the chest, but unreadable at the present. Its circle in the weft is 36cm, ?? doubles in an item? Along the tunic edges and the hem, the circled nest designs in parallel lines with fragrant brocade, red silk threads used as the background and flat golden flower designs, circled nest designs consists of Arabic Letters are on the surface, parallel fragrant lines designs are on the inside and Binhua flower designs on the outside and doubles of four animals. The later one is one of rarely found articles.

Appendix:  2 Photos of the Article

 

A GOLDEN BROCADE BRAID THREAD TUNIC WITH PARROT DESIGNS

Number: one  the Serial Number:

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty)

The length of the sleeves is 224cm; the length of the main body is 128cm. The most important clothing of noble men of Yuan period is the Jisun tunic. The Jisun tunic is a special clothing, which was worn at the banquets held by the great Khan, it is also called as Zhisun or Jixun, “in Chinese it means a kind of clothes in a same chosen color”. There are many types of Jisun tunics without determined orders, but one of them called the plaited thread coat, also called as the braid thread tunic. Its main character is that there has a braid thread used as a belt. In the book of A Brief History of the Black Tatars, said, “there was a kind of tunic at that time, red and violet silks were twisted into a thread, put it on the waist and thus it called the Waist Thread”. It also indicates it is the same kind of braid thread tunic. The golden brocade braid thread tunic with parrot designs that we have found is the most typical Mongolian tunic style. It has a right front cover with crossed collar, long sleeves with a tight rim, a front and a back hems and crossed on the left behind side. The length of the sleeves is 224cm; the main body length is 128cm. The braid lines were embroidered with yellow silk threads on the waist, the total width is 19cm, and a violet tough silk was rolled up as line shapes and made into 12 buttons. Below the plaited threads, there are some crowded thin wrinkles; these are also recorded in the book of A Brief History of the Black Tatars, as “there are some crowded thin wrinkles on the waist, uncountable”. This kind of tunic still found in the period of Ming Dynasty, called Yesa. The main material was used for the tunic is a kind of brocade with parrot designs, violet silk used as background, the flower designs made of plaited golden threads, the special white knot tied with a twill. The parrots are in the designs of turning back its head, biting a ribbon with knots on the two tips in the mouth, a group of them faced towards the left, another group faced towards the west, in phased lines. The width of the cloth is 100cm, there are eight circles in a cloth, the circle along the weft is 12.5cm, and the circle along the warp is 40—42cm. The brocade with parrot designs is also used as ornaments in the shoulder and hem parts. The design and the structure are similar or extremely same. But the background silk color is yellow; it is different from forgoing one. This indicates that they are having the same designs, but made of different kinds of silk threads.

Appendix:  2 Photos of the Article

 

A TUNIC WITH DESIGNS OF THE SUN, THE MOON, CLOUD AND DRAGON MADE OF GOLDEN BRAID THREADS IN THE CHEST AND BACK ON A DAMASK SILK BACKGROUND

Number: one  the Serial Number:

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty)

The length of the sleeves is 204cm; the length of the main body is 106cm. A damask silk with water tide designs was used, as the background in the tunic, of which 2/1Z is the background, and 1/2Z is the designs. The golden threads weaved as decoration designs, the knot structure covered 1/5Z of the twills. The two tips of the warp thread are plaited in the shape of the letter Z, and the warp and weft are set in the parallel lines. The designs are amassed on four places such as the chest, the back and the shoulders. The square designs on the chest and back, are measured each length about 33cm by each heights of 25cm. One of the weaved golden dragon designs, of which two legs walking towards the left, but upper body and the head turned to the right, and the cloud designs are set around it. And there are triangle decoration designs on the left and right shoulders, the bottom width is 27cm, total height is 26cm, including a round plate with the diameter of 11cm. There is also a walking dragon design on the bottom part, the sun and the moon designs on the plate. The right shoulder is designed as the sun, and a bird with three legs in the plate. The left shoulder is designed as the moon, and a rabbit in the plate. It is just tally with the descriptions in the historical documents of the Yuan period, “a silk tunic with the designs of the sun, the moon, dragon and phoenix ”. The style of the tunic is that it has the right front covers, crossed collar and tight sleeves. The length of the sleeves is 204cm, the body (worn) length about 106cm. On the 13cm of wide place of the waist, there are 37 plaited lines, the lines are embroidered in a way of two groups of various silk threads which spreading left and right directions in parallel. There are doubles of seven buttons on the right waist and some crowded thin wrinkles below the plaited line. The hem of the tunic is consisted of front and back parts; the two parts are overlapping each other on the left back side of it. The tunic with designs of the sun, the moon, cloud and dragon made of golden braid threads in the chest and back on a damask silk background, which we have discovered, is considered a very rare one of ceremonial clothes of royal nobles of the Yuan Dynasty. The designs of the sun, the moon, clouds and the dragon were governmentally limited designs of the time, the chest and back style is the origin of the later additional design, but the braid thread tunic was the most popular fashion of the time. So far, there is no same kind of tunic has been discovered.

Appendix:  2 Photos of the Article

 

A FRAGNANT BROCADE TUNIC WITH PETAL NEST DESIGNS ON THE BACKGROUND OF LING LINES AND WORDS OF ╬?

Number: one  the Serial Number:

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty)

The warp circle is 31.5cm; the weft circle is 18.5cm. The main material used in the tunic is a fragrant brocade with petal nest designs on the background of ling lines and words of ╬?. On the brocade, put the words of ╬ designs in the lines of ling silk, and the designs of petal nest with parallel fragrant lines are evenly decorated, the warp circle is 31.5cm and the weft circle is 18.5cm. The designs of petal nest with parallel fragrant lines are nearly as same as the model of ╬ ? word designs of petal nest with parallel fragrant lines on the back of a tortoise that is discovered from Yuan Jining Road in Inner Mongolia. Both of them also have a similar spinning method in which knots were made of special brocade having no golden threads. The style of the tunic is a more common one with the right front cover, tight sleeves and a waist without plaited threads.

Appendix:  2 Photos of the Article

 

Series 5   Porcelain

Antiques on display: total     items

Appendix: total       items

Introduction: although having no fine vitreous enamels as two Zong periods’, the Mongol Yuan Empire had far more evaluations of porcelain decorations and fine models than any former dynasties. Among its outstanding achievements, the products from the ceramic industry of Jingdezhen Town was very famous, especially the ripeness of the Blue Flower Design making skills of it, not only founded the main position of the porcelain decorated with colored drawings of China, but also started the world’s rather permanent development of the porcelain decorated with blue flower designs on the white background. As only governmental porcelain workshop was set up in Jingdezhen Town, and made the local place known as the capital of china of the world.

1.      A Picture of the Technological Process of Making Porcelain (Making Products with the Heavenly Skills)

2.      A Picture of the Technological Process of Making Porcelain (the Fax of the Chinese Antiques)

 

The Jingdezhen Town: the biggest porcelain kiln of China since Yuan Dynasty, it locates in the Jingxi Province. The famous products which manufactured during the Yuan Dynasty were vitreous enamels of the Youlihong and Qinghua; a product of egg white enamel, of which color is white with a light blue, the word Shufu written inside, thus it called as the Shufu Kiln. The white china produced in Wudai?, the whiteness of the article reached above 70%, its transparency also approached the modern level.

 

A HIGH LEG CUP WITH GOLDEN POWDER MOUND

Number: one  the Serial Number: C—000110

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 9.5cm (broken). A rare one of the famous porcelains of Yuan Dynasty has been discovered, though it is broken.

Appendix:

1.       A Picture of the High Leg Cup Using

2.  2 Photos of the Article

 

The Qinghua china or the Porcelain with Blue Flower Designs: it is the name of the enamel, a special name for the porcelain with blue designs on the white background. First, to draw some designs on the semi finished product with mineral cobalt, then to cover them with transparent enamel, finally, baked with high-temperature. This kind of porcelain was rather developed at Yuan Dynasty and reached its ripeness stage at the Ming Dynasty. The Jingdezhen china is the most famous.

 

THE JADE PORCELAIN SPRING POT WITH BLUE FLOWER DESIGNS

Number: one  the Serial Number: C—000113

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 26.5cm, caliber7.7cm, the bottom diameter 8.4cm (broken).

Appendix: 2 Photos of the Article

 

The Cizhou Kiln: it is one of the northern nongovernmental kilns. The kiln relic located near to the two villages of Dong’aicun and Zhizicun, the Guantai Town lies on the two coasts of the Zhanghe River, Cixian County, Hebei Province, but in ancient time they belonged to the Cizhou and named after it. The main products of the utensils are plates, bowls, pots and the bottles, including some china pillows and toys. The porcelain has two different qualities: one is harder and thinner, with the color of grayish white, the other is rough and slack, with the color of red and brown. The color of the enamel is white with light yellow, the black and brown designs on it, most of them no enamel in the inside. There are many kinds of methods for the drawing designs, such as the painting design, the scratching design, the picking design and the pearl scratching design. There are more complicated designs, but the most popular designs are the circle, the peony with twined stems, the water waves, the flower-and-plant, the bird and the fish, having fluent lines and free structure, and it is regarded as a representative article of the northern porcelain products.

 

A CIZHOU KILN POT WITH BLACK FLOWERS AND A PLAYING PARROT ON WHITE BACKGROUND

Number: one  the Serial Number: C—000093

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 28.2cm, caliber17.2cm, the bottom diameter 12cm.

Appendix: 2 Photos of the Article

 

A CIZHOU KILN HIGH LEG CUP WITH BLACK FLOWERS N WHITE BACKGROUND

Number: one  the Serial Number: C—000097

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 9cm, caliber10.3cm, the bottom diameter 4.3cm.

Appendix: 2 Photos of the Article

 

A CIZHOU KILN BRUSH POT WITH BLACK ENAMEL AND FLOWER DESIGNS

Number: one  the Serial Number: C—000094

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 17.2cm, caliber15.6cm, the bottom diameter 9.5cm.

Appendix: 2 Photos of the Article

 

A DATONG KILN JADE PORCELAIN SPRING POT WITH WHITE ENAMEL AND STABBING FLOWER DESIGNS

Number: one  the Serial Number: C—000099

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 30.7cm, caliber8.5cm, the bottom diameter 9cm.

Appendix: 2 Photos of the Article

 

A CIZHOU KILN CHINA PILLOW WITH FIGURES AND FLOWERS AND PLANTS DESIGNS

Number: one  the Serial Number: C—000091

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 41cm, caliber17cm, the bottom diameter 16cm.

Appendix: 2 Photos of the Article

 

The Diao Kiln: it is one of the five famous kilns of Zong Dynasty, so called as the Diao Kiln or the Diaozhou Kiln. The areas of Gujuntai and Shenzhen Towns, Yuxian County, Henan Province, called Junzhou before, and named after it. Its quality is fine and harder, and a heavy body. The enamel has five colors and those are thick and smooth. There are two kinds of enamel colors, one is called the fine and flat enamel, and the other is called the orange skin enamel, with a character of baked color of the Kiln Change. The basic enamel color is of sky blue in all and some dotted red violet spots. Some of them have a light violet luster on the green background or some have violet red sheens; some have the moon white on blue, or just one color of sky blue; some have rosy violet red on violet, or just one color of sunset glow; some have spots and dots, or green blue phased with violet red. Therefore, they are intricate and bright and colorful, and gorgeous.

 

A JUN KILN PLUM POT

Number: one  the Serial Number: C—0000101

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 38.6cm, caliber4.7cm, the bottom diameter 11cm.

Appendix: 2 Photos of the Article

 

The Longquan Kiln: it is one of the famous kilns of Zong Dynasty. The relic lies in the villages of the Longquan Dayao and the Jincun, in 1960 we have extended the excavation. It was started from Wudai (the Five Dynasties?), and inherited the tradition of the Yao Kiln, baking blue china; it was prosperous at the Southern Zong State. The Southeren Zong State’s Longquan Kiln products are divided into two sorts: one has thinner and fine and pure white quality, the other has an enamel color of dotted blue, and plum blue set as the main color, the decoration designs are consisted of molded sculptures and flower designs. The sort is considered as the Di Kiln, in general it is known as the Longquan Kiln. The other sort is called as the Ge Kiln. The Longquan Kiln products have very complicated shapes; it not only produces daily utensils, but also manufactures all kinds of stationeries and imitations of the antiques such as bottles, wine pots, tripods and the basket stoves. The Longquan Porcelain Kiln area was extended to the Lishui and Yongjia; the products of Longquan products of Yuan Dynasty, were exported in big numbers.

 

A LONGQUAN KILN HIGH LEG CUP OF BLUE ENAMEL

Number: one  the Serial Number: C—000105

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 12.5cm, caliber12.5cm.

Appendix: 2 Photos of the Article

 

A LONGQUAN KILN VAT OF BLUE ENAMEL WITH CUT FLOWER DESIGNS

Number: one  the Serial Number: C—000104

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 43.1cm, caliber43.8cm, the bottom diameter 30.3cm.

Appendix: 2 Photos of the Article

 

A LONGQUAN KILN LONG NECK POT OF BLUE ENAMEL WITH CUT FLOWER OF DESIGNS WITH WINDED STEMS

Number: one  the Serial Number: C—000103

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 66.7cm, caliber21.2cm, the bottom diameter 16cm.

Appendix: 2 Photos of the Article

 

A JUN KILN MOON WHITE ENAMEL BOWEL

Number: one  the Serial Number: C—000102

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 7.5cm, caliber15.8cm, the bottom diameter 6.1cm.

Appendix: 2 Photos of the Article

 

The Huo Kiln: it was one of the Jingdezhen Kilns of Tang Dynasty. The Huozhong was firstly baked. The Huo Kiln products, having a general color, fine earth with thin quality, the best one treasured as jewelries.

 

A HUOZHOU KILN HIGH LEG CUP WITH WHITE ENAMEL PRINTED FLOWER DESIGNS

Number: one  the Serial Number: C—000100

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 6.5cm, caliber10.9cm.

Appendix: 2 Photos of the Article

 

A PLUM POT WITH BLUE AND WHITE ENAMEL CUT FLOWER DESIGNS

Number: one  the Serial Number: C—000106

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 31cm, caliber5.3cm, the bottom diameter 12cm.

Appendix: 2 Photos of the Article

 

The enamel red: it is the name of the color of porcelain glaze. After drawing designs with oxidized bronze and putting a layer of transparent enamel on the base, it is baked in a high-temperature and the designs became red. It was started from Yuan period, and reached its ripeness at the Ming period, and after Qing Dynasty it had more development, too.

 

A KETTLE WITH RED ENAMEL PINE, BAMBOO AND PLUM DESIGNS

Number: one  the Serial Number: C—000109

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 40cm, caliber7.6cm, the bottom diameter 11.9cm.

Appendix: 2 Photos of the Article

 

A CHINA PILLOW WITH THREE KINDS OF COLORED SCRIPTS

Number: one  the Serial Number: C—0001092

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 13, length: 44cm, width: 16.8cm.

Appendix: 2 Photos of the Article

 

A BASIN WITH GAOLI WHITE ENAMEL AND RUST FLOWER DESINGNS

Number: one  the Serial Number: C—000108

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 31.3cm, caliber31.3cm, the bottom diameter 23.5cm.

Appendix: 2 Photos of the Article

 

A DATONG KILN BIG POT WITH WHITE ENAMEL PICKED FLOWER DESIGNS

Number: one  the Serial Number: C—000096

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 64.5cm, caliber49.5cm, the bottom diameter 22.5cm.

Appendix: 2 Photos of the Article

 

A DOUBLE TIE POT WITH BLACK ENAMEL AND RUST FLOWER DESIGNS

Number: one  the Serial Number: C—000098

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 11.5cm, caliber12.4cm, the bottom diameter 7.5cm.

Appendix: 2 Photos of the Article

 

Series 6   Wares of Wood and Bone and Other Material

Antiques on display: total     items

Appendix: total       items

 

AN ORNAMENT OF IVORY DECORATED WITH RHINOCEROS HORN

Number: a set of fourteen  the Serial Number: C—000020

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) the circle shaped, length: 5.9cm, width: 5.7cm. The bean shaped, length: 4.5cm. The rectangle, length: 3.1cm. The deer with turning head, length: 3.2cm. The flower shaped, length: 8.4cm. The bean shaped, length: 2.4cm. The flower shaped, length: 3.8cm. The lying horse, length: 2cm. The grassland life are described as the main subjects in these ornaments, the five kinds of animals and designs of which grassland people fond are carved on the ivory.

Introduction: the aristocracy class of Mongols very fond of ivory and rhinoceros products. According to the records of the European missionaries, a treasury chair which Guyukh Khan used it in his ascending of throne, that was made of ivory by Russian craftsman. In the governmental workshops, there was a section specially set up for making products with ivory and rhinoceros horns, the most important item was the belt ornament (called the waist belt at that time). The products of rhinoceros horns from folk are also fine and elegant, even a volume of the Xiaojing Doctrine, and was inlaid with ivory on a thumb sized back wood by the talented craftsman.

Appendix: 1 Photo of the Article

 

THE ITEMS OF DRESSING AND MAKING UP

Number: a set of seven  the Serial Number: Z—000061

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) ruler shaped, length: 31cm. The wood comb, length: 9cm. The bone brush, length: 16cm. The bone comb, length:   cm. The scissors, length: 9.2cm. The tweezers, length: 9cm. The making up box, length of its handle: 2.4cm.

Appendix: 1 Photo of the Article

 

A HELANSHAN MOUNT INKSLAB

Number: a set of two  the Serial Number: St—000053

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) length: 22cm, width: 10.5cm.

Appendix: 1 Photo of the Article

 

AN OCTAGONAL INKSLAB WITH PAGSBA SCIPTS

Number: one  the Serial Number: St—000136

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) diameter: 23.3cm.

Appendix: 1 Photo of the Article

 

A PERFUME

Number: one  the Serial Number: Z—000057

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 5.2cm.

Appendix: 1 Photo of the Article

 

A WOODEN PILLOW WITH COLORED DRAWINGS OF FLOWERS AND PLANTS AND ANIMALS OF LUCKY DESIGNS

Number: one  the Serial Number: W—000090

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) height: 36cm, width: 23.6cm, 10.6cm.

Appendix: 1 Photo of the Article

 

A CURRENT TREASURE NOTE OF ZHIYUAN

Number: one  the Serial Number: Z—000142

The article description: (Yuan Dynasty) length:  cm, width:  cm (worn). In the first year of the Zhongtong (1260), Kublai according to the opinion of Liu Bingzhong, decided to use paper money with denominations of Wen and Guan. The practices of the Yuan Dynasty notes, promoted the world currency reforms.

Appendix: 1 Photo of the Article

(the end)

source: http://bdelger.blog.163.com

A Brief Introduction to the Qingshan Industrial Zone of the North Urad Banner

(translated from Chinese into English by Delger)

One. The Basic Situation

The Qingshan Industrial Zone of the North Urad Banner locates in Khukheundur Town, 50 kilometers away from the Linhe District, the location of the government of Banyannagur City, 50 kilometers away from the Baolan Railway (from Bugutu to Lanzhou), the Jingzang Highway (from Beijing to Tibet) and the 110 State Highway, a distance from 140 kilometers away from the Bagamodu Port, the Linha Railway (from Linhe to Ceke to Xinjiang) which via the industrial zone. And also, a main canal of a tributary of the Yellow River, China’s second river, flows through here.

The Qingshan Industrial Zone of the North Urad Banner is an Autonomous Region Class industrial base. There have been imported 26 industrial enterprises of mining, ore dressing, melting and processing, its annual industrial output value is about 4.3 billion yuan, and payable tax is 600 million yuan, covering the 39% percent of the financial total income of the whole Banner. With the continuous improvement of the investment environment and the further increasing inviting investment, there brings more perfect infrastructures to the Qingshan Industrial Zone. In resent five years, the zone have completed the investing in the fixed assets of 180 million yuan, the network of the roads spread all parts, covers an area of 20 kilometers, with increasing numbers of enterprises. Particularly, in resent two years, imported companies and projects, such as the Zijin Company melting 100,000 tons of zinc each year, the Feixiang Copper Company melting 100,000 tons of copper each year and the Ruifeng Company melting 100,000 tons of lead each year, starting operation and construction in succession and greatly promoted the building step of the industrial zone.

At present, the zone has already established the main three pillars of industrial pattern, such as vulcanized building materials and cement processing, nonferrous metal mining and melting, and high energy-loaded smelting. In 2007, the Banner Government employed experts from Jiangxi Technology University, Zhejiang University and Bugutu Steel Designing Institute, has made detailed plans to the whole Banner’s industrial enterprises which based on mining resources and the Qingshan Industrial Zone, and it has been demonstrated. In the next step, the radiation leading function of the Qingshan Industrial Zone will be improved by opening of the traffic of the Huoqing Highway (from Khugeqin to Khukheundur Town) and the Lince Railway (from Linhe to Ceke) , with reopening of the Bagamodo Port. In prediction, by 2010, the industrial zone is developing towards the finer, higher, nicer processing in the enterprises of high energy, nonferrous metal mining and processing, cement and chemicals. And the number of the enterprises will be increased by 60, aimed to realize the industry’s synthetic utilization best, more density of industrial circulation chain, an industrial output value of 16 billion yuan, payable tax of 1.5 billion yuan.

Two  The Industry Planning

The Qingshan Industrial Zone has a total planning area of 120 square kilometers, along with a network of the railways of the Shanqing, Gucha, Huoqing and Lince. The first step planning covers 20 square kilometers and traffic net which spreads all parts will be finished. In the next step, the industrial zone planning of Khukheundur Town to Dongsheng Temple area will be completed, and the zone will be built in different clusters of enterprises of metal smelting, metalwork processing, electronic power, heavy chemicals and building materials. Every cluster will relies on the present local mining resources and bases of exploration, mining, processing and smelting, forms a longer industrial chains, emphasizes the resource production and resource consumption, so that improves the integrated utilization ability, promotes recycling of the regenerative resources, explores and goes on a road of new regional industrialization of higher technological content, the best resource utilization, better economic benefit and less environmental pollution, realizing the resource sharing, waste recycling and comprehensive utilization, and promoting the regional economy with development of sustainable, fast, healthy, environmental and recyclable approach.

(1) The Metal Smelting and Processing Area

The copper industry chain: giving a support to the Western Copper Company, an extension construction of annual 3,000,000 tons of mining and processing will be done, promoting the development of the Western Copper Company and the Feixiang Corporation’s joint copper industry and secondary copper enterprises, and supporting its peripheral exploration, assistance in the organizing of the resources from the surrounding areas, approach an annual output of 100,000 tons of copper melting, and try our best to realize an annual output of 200,000 tons of copper in 2010.

The lead and zinc chain: giving a support to the Zijin Company’s project of smelting zinc 200,000 tons each year, after going into production of 100,000 tons in the first period, plan to build an output of 100,000 tons each year in the second period, as soon as possible; supporting the Ruifeng Company’s project of lead smelting of 100,000 tons each year, on the base of present output of 30,000 tons each year, approach 50,000 tons in the next five years and the zinc smelting scale of 100,000 tons each year in 2010.

The nickel and iron chain: give a support to the Ebtu Nickel Mine’s present output of 100,000 tons of nickel processing each year, enlarge the surrounding area’s mining and processing scale; to help the Shuangli Iron Company, complete its an output of 200,000 tons of iron processing each year, as soon as possible; build the project of coal based reduced iron and pellet sintering of 400,000 tons each year, and the project of special kind of stainless steel of 600,000 tons each year.

(2) The Metalwork Processing Area

On the important base of the metal production and smelting and raw products, such as copper, lead, zinc, iron and silicon etc, import the related techniques or some corporation’s investment for projects of copper material processing mainly as copper rod, copper wire, copper foil and copper alloy; processing industries of storage battery, zinc electroplating, seamless steel plate, nichrome, and related productions of iron founding, machine spare parts and hardware processing, wind power generator assembly manufacturing and mould manufacturing.

(3) The Power Energy Area

To maintain to build the Hengwang Company’s project of 2×30,0000 kilowatts of thermoelectricity of cogeneration, strive for importing the bigger coal chemical enterprises as much as possible, and build thermal power station or 50KW transformer substation; promote the Fuhui Company’s project of wind power generation of 50,000 kilowatts which under construction, and start to build the other 5 wind power generations; speed up the exploration and mining of the oil and oil shale inside of the Banner, approach a new breakthrough in the utilization of waste heat, waste gas and waste energy.

(4)The Heavy Chemical Industry Area

Based on our own advantage of resources, develop enterprises of circulation downstream industry, and production of diversified compound industrialization. Making full use of the sulfide enriched concentrate and acid from exhaust gas of smelting projects, provide supports for comprehensive utilization of the sulfuric acid of the Qihua Company, Zijin Company, Feishang Company and Ruifeng Company, build a project of 600,000 tons of phosphate ammonium compound fertilizer each year. At the same time, taking advantage of the calcium carbide, high energy-loaded, cement and building materials, series of sulfate chemical materials, establish secondary industries as methanol and polyethylene. And also taking advantage of chance of the Lince Railway which via through the whole banner, develop projects of coal chemicals, coal char chemicals and char gasification, to realize the synthetically recycling of the electropyrolysis and gasification. And attracting investment and build the projects of 3,000,000 tons of char chemicals each year, a coal and gas burning power station of 2×300,000 kilowatts, 300,000 tons of PVC each year, 20,000 of PE each year, 50,000 tons of hydrogen fluoride each year and lead acid batteries.

(5) The Building Material Area

Giving supports to the technical transformations of the Mengxi Company and Tuanyang Cement Company, taking advantage of the carbon acid calcium, waste residues from the local smelting enterprises, reform and construct the projects of 1,000,000 tons of common silicate cement each year and 300,000 tons of special cement grinding; develop and construct a project of 100,000 tons of stone machining, speed up the stone material development and satisfy the local consumption. Meanwhile pay attention to the utilization of the Three Wastes, and build a new project of environmental friendly stucco building materials as brick and paint.

(6) The Nonmetal Industry Area

Taking full usage of the local nonmetal mine resources such as silicon, graphite, serpentine and garnet, develop and build mining and processing projects, mainly import and construct a project of 1,000 tons of polycrystalline silicon each year.

source: http://bdelger.blog.163.com

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