Monthly Archives: December 2013

China to Publish Encyclopedia on Mongolian Studies

A publishing house in north China’s Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region will publish this year two volumes of an encyclopedia of Mongolian studies in both Chinese and Mongolian.

The 20-volume, six-million word encyclopedia includes 40,000 entries and 10,000 photographs covering medical science, literature, culture, language, economic development, science and technology, and the lives of the Mongolian people.

Editors of the Scientific and Technological Publishing House of Inner Mongolia initiated the project 12 years ago, and the final compilation will be completed by the year 2005.

According to an editor, this encyclopedia will be a valuable record for the domestic and international study of the Mongolian people’s history, culture, science and language, among others.



6th Annual International Mongolian Studies Conference

Chinggis Khaan – 850 Year Legacy
The Sixth Annual International Mongolian Studies Conference

Co-Hosted by

The Mongolian Cultural Center
The Embassy of Mongolia
in partnership with
The Institute for Defense Studies
with contribution from
Dr. Alicia Campi, President of the Mongolia Society
Mongolian-American Cultural Association (Dr. Sanj Altan)
Pyramide Granite LLC (Mr. Delgertsogt Manaljav and Mr. Olziikhuyag Dash)

May 4-5, 2012

The Embassy of Mongolia
2833 M Street NW, Washington, D.C., 20007

Agenda (Tentative)

Friday, May 4

08:30 – Registration & Breakfast

09:00 – Opening Remarks
H.E. Khasbazaryn Bekhbat, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
of Mongolia to the United States of America

Dr. Saruul-Erdene Myagmar, President, the Mongolian Cultural Center

Col. Munkh-Ochir Dorjjugder, Director, The Institute for Defense Studies

09:15 – Keynote Address

Dr. Alicia J. Campi, President, Mongolia Society
The Image of Chinggis Khaan – The Marketing of a National Symbol

09:45 – Panel One. Political Tradition

Lasha Tchantouridzé (Norwich University)
Tolerance and the International Social Order in the Mongol Empire

Sultan Akimbekov (Center for Political Analysis, Almaty)
Strengthening the Mongol Political Tradition

Myagmarsambuu Galindev (Institute for Defense Studies)
The Tengri Cult as an Imperial Political Ideology*

10.45 – Panel Two. Global Influence and Impacts of the Mongol Empire
Moderator: Munkh-Ochir Dorjjugder, Institute for Defense Studies

Batir Xasanov (Tel-Aviv University)
In Search for the Good Light of Chinggis Khaan: The Rise of Importance
of Chinggis Khaan Figure and the Neo-Dastanic Discourse in Kazakhstan

Lala Aliyeva (Harvard University)
The Impact of Mongolian Conquest on the ethnic and religious processes
in Azerbaijan in the 13th -14th centuries

Gulnar Kendirbai (Columbia University)
The Russian Institution of Protectorate as the Legacy of the Mongol
Political Culture

12:00 – Lunch

Photographic Exhibition, Mongolia’s Story in Images, by the Ministry
of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Mongolia and MONTSAME News Agency

13:00 – Panel Three. Mongol Strategy and Art of War

Paul D. Buell (Horst Gortz Institute, Berlin)
Cinggis qan and Strategy: How Mongols Did So Much with so Little.

Özlem Arzu Azer (Istanbul Universitesi)
Adaptation of Chinggis Khaan’s War Strategy To Business Life in the
Competitive World

Shagdar Khainzan (Institute for Defense Studies)
Strategic Dominance and Tactical Supremacy in Mongol Art of War*

Bazarsuren Jamba (Institute for Defense Studies)
13th Century Revolution in Military Affairs: How Weapons Superiority
Contributed to Invincibility of Chinggis Khaan’s Troops*

15.00 – Panel Four. Modern Perception of Chinggis Khaan’s Legacy
Moderator: Dr. Alicia Campi, The Mongolia Society

Tamir Ch. (National University of Mongolia)
The 1990 Democratic Revolution and Return of Chinggis Khaan: Popular
Resistance and National Identity

Boldbaatar Chunt (Mongolian State University of Education)
What Went Wrong? Comparing the 1962 Assessment of Chinggis Khaan to
Modern Perception*

Albert Yu Min Lin (National Geographic Society)
The Valley of the Khans Project

Burmaa Jamiyansuren (Ider University), Dana-Nicoleta Lascu (University
of Richmond)
>From Ger to Apartment; Information Sources and Decisions for Housing
Products and Services

Saturday, May 5

09:00 – Panel Five. Linguistic and Literary Heritage of the Mongols
Moderator: Dr. Saruul Erdene Myagmar, Mongolian Cultural Center

Khuslen Soninbayar
On Choiji-Odser’s Translation of Bodhichirya Avatara from Tibetan*

Bat-Ireedui Jantsan (National University of Mongolia)
Benedictions and Swear Words in Mongolian: Contrasts and Semantics*

Otgontsetseg Damdinsuren
Textbooks and Recommended Literature Used in ROK Universities*

Ishaq Mohammadi (Assistant Director Department of Archaeology, Balochistan)
On Some Linguistic and Historic Ties of Mongol and Hazara People.

10.30 – Panel Six. Mongol Artistic Expression and Its Impacts
Moderator: William J. Fitshigh, Smithsonian Institution

Altangerel Dagvasambuu
Chinggis Khaan as Portrayed in “Khor Choinjun”: Lamaist Influence on
Chinggis Khaan’s Biography*

Jennifer Purtle (University of Toronto)
The Orthography of Yuan Dynasty Paintings: Reading the Visual and
Verbal Languages of “Chinese” Paintings in their Sino-Mongol Context

Zoljargal Nyambuu
Mongolian Dress Influence: Traces of Distant Nomads on Western Fashion

Erdenetsetseg Baatar (National Museum of Mongolia)
Weapons Displayed in the National Museum of Mongolia*

12:00 – Lunch

Art Exhibition, Artist Tsolmon Damba (Board Member of the Mongolian
Cultural Center)

13:00 – Panel Seven. Chinggis Khaan in Historiography
Moderator: (TBC)

Gantulga Tsend (Mongolian State University of Education)
Chinggis Khaan and the Uriankhai*

Delgerjargal Purevsuren (National University of Mongolia)
The Encounter of Chinggis Khaan and Tao Scholar Ch’iang-chun*

Altanzaya Laikhansuren (Mongolian State University of Education)
History if Ritual Offerings in Commemoration of Chinggis Khaan*

Enkhjargal Damdinsuren (National University of Mongolia)
Is the “Secret History of the Mongols” a Primary Historical Source?*

14.45 – Open Discussion by Participants
Moderators: Saruul-Erdene Myagmar and Munkh-Ochir Dorjjugder

16.00 – Wrap-Up and Concluding Remarks

19:00 – Reception in Honor of Conference Participants
Hosted by H.E. Khasbazaryn Bekhbat, Ambassador of Mongolia to the United States
of America
Ambassador’s Residence, Potomac, MD

Presentation of the collection of books on the history of Mongol
Empire and Chinggis Khaan.

Performance of the singer Saran Erdenebat (Mongolian Cultural Center)

Sunday, May 6

10.00 – Sight-seeing Tour and Informal Party, Great Falls, MD
Hosted by the Mongolian Cultural Center and Sponsors

Note: Asterisk (*) notes that the presentation will be in Mongolian.
All other papers will be presented in English.


China Publishes Mongolian Study Collection

Chinese experts are working on a series of collected works on Mongolian study and more than half ofthe job has been done.

The publisher of “The Collected Works on the Study of Mongolians in China” is Liaoning Minorities Publishing House. So far, 24 books in the series have come off the presses and the workon other books is going on well, according to Chen Xianguo, editor-in-chief of the collection.

The publishing house, beginning to issue the works in 1997, plans to publish a total of 70 books in the series in both Chineseand Mongolian.

The works already published have been sold in over 20 countriesand regions.

Since the 1950s, the study of Mongolian history has attracted researchers in over 40 countries. There are now more than 2,000 experts in the field in China, according to Chen.


A Brief Introduction to the Research Center of Mongolian Studies, IMU

The Research Center of Mongolian Studies was established by Ministry of Education, as a unique national level key research base of the humanities and social science study in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. It has been constructed jointly by the Ministry of Education, Inner Mongolian Bureau of Education and Inner Mongolia University (IMU). Inner Mongolia University conducts management and daily operation of the center.

  As a research institution, the Centre is subordinate to the IMU. Within the Centre, there are different research groups such as the Research Group of Mongolian Language and Literature, the Research Group of Mongolian History and Culture, the Research Group of Mongolian Society and Economy, and a library shared with the School of Mongolian Studies. The Center director is Professor Chimeddorji; deputy director Uyunbilig; the Administration Secretary Baoguoqing, and there is a librarian, an editor of electronic journal, and a webmaster.

  According to the principles of Ministry of Education to build up key research bases, each researcher employed by the director in the Centre is required to enter the base with assigned projects and appropriated funds, and come out of the base after finishing their projects. Therefore, there is no life-long employment.

  By way of organizing the great important projects, we can make the significant achievements; by way of conducting scientific researches, we can train a number of young and mid-aged scholars in high quality, and even the top academic leaders; by way of interchanging the academic findings and thoughts, we can function as the open window to spread and inhale the latest information; by way of providing useful inquiry service and researching service for people and all levels of government, we become the well-known base of thoughts and ideas; furthermore, by way of intensifying the reforms of scientific research system, we will set up a good example to other colleges and universities. All in all, led by Ministry of Education and supported by every branch of the government, Education Department of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and Inner Mongolia University, all researching work of the Centre has been gradually carrying out and obvious progress has taken place, too.


Inner Asian and Altaic Studies at Harvard University

Inner Asian and Altaic Studies deal with the history and cultures of the peoples in the steppe, mountain, forest, and oasis areas between China, Russia, western Iran, and Pakistan. This geographic area comprises Central Asia (namely former Soviet Central Asia, Xinjiang, eastern Iran, and Afghanistan), Kazakhstan, the northern regions of Pakistan, Tibet (including Qinghai, eastern Sichuan, Gansu, and northwestern Yunnan), Mongolia, and Manchuria. The Altaic languages include the Turkic group, the Mongolian group, and the Tunguzic group.

The Committee on Inner Asian and Altaic Studies was established in the fall of 1972 for the purpose of stimulating and integrating instruction and research in these areas. Harvard is preeminent among the very few universities where Inner Asian and Altaic studies may be pursued. Harvard’s library holdings in East European, East Asian, Islamic, and South Asian areas led to a development of strength in the Inner Asian and Altaic fields prior to the actual establishment of this program. The research centers and degree programs that exist at Harvard on the four sides of the Inner Asian area have contributed much material directly relevant to the study of this region. Harvard possesses outstanding collections in the Arabic, Chinese, Indian, Iranian, Russian , Tibetan, and Turkish languages, which comprise the most important primary sources for the study of this area, as well as in Manchu and Mongolian. These collections are variously held by the Widener, Harvard-Yenching, Houghton, Dumbarton Oaks, Gibb, Tozzer, and Fine Arts libraries. The East Asian Research Center and Harvard’s microfilm collection also contain important source material.

The PhD program in Inner Asian and Altaic Studies is modeled on similar joint degree programs for adjacent areas, in particular the PhD programs in History and East Asian Languages and in History and Middle Eastern Studies. Like these, the PhD program in Inner Asian and Altaic Studies is not training in area studies as such but rather a program in an established discipline (i.e., anthropology, art and architecture, history, linguistics, literature, or religious studies) with emphasis on Inner Asia and/or the Altaic languages. The program includes a language requirement and a general examination in three fields, and is restricted to candidates for the PhD degree. It does not offer a Master’s program.

Prerequisites for Admission

All students in the program are expected to meet the requirements of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, including a bachelor’s degree from a recognized institution, a superior undergraduate record, and the reading knowledge of at least one appropriate foreign source language such as, for example, Arabic, Chinese, Manchu, Persian, Russian, or Turkish. A master’s degree in hand is advantageous.

The requirements for the degree are:

Academic Residence

A minimum of two years is required. In most cases, however, fulfillment of all requirements for the degree will involve at least one additional year of course work. In consultation with the student, the committee members and advisors will arrange a particular program of study. .

Financial Requirements

See GSAS Guide to Admission and Financial Aid or The Graduate School of Arts and Sciences Handbook.

Introductory Courses

All first-year students in this program should take an introductory course in at least one of the following fields given by members of the committee.

  1. History of Inner Asia
  2. Archaeology and Art of Inner Asia
  3. Comparative and Historical Turkic, Mongolian, Manchu, Tibetan, Tunguz, or Altaic Linguistics
  4. Inner Asian Philology (Khotanese Saka, Sogdian, Tibetan, Tokharian, Gandhari [Niya] Prakrit, etc.)


Language Examinations

Upon enrolling in graduate school the candidate should offer proof of competence in at least one foreign “tool” language (this will be done by way of examination in the first term of study), and by the end of the second year, he or she should also demonstrate competence by way of examination in a second “tool” language, selected from among those ­especially pertinent to the student’s topic of specialization. “Tool” languages, such as French, German, Italian, Russian, and Japanese, are to be distinguished from “source” languages such as Arabic, Chinese, Manchu, Mongolian, Persian, Sanskrit, Tibetan, and Turkic; in particular cases, where one of the latter is not a “source” language it may be considered a “tool” language. Students are expected to be competent in the language(s) of their primary focus and will be required to take written examinations in their “source” language or languages, both with and without the aid of a dictionary.

General Exam

Normally at the end of the second year of residence or in the third year of residence, the candidate will write a general examination in three fields approved in advance by the committee. One of these fields should cover the history or culture of a major society outside of Inner Asia (e.g., Western Europe, Russia, Islamic Middle East, East Asia, South Asia, or the Americas). The other two will be focused on:

  1. Pre-Islamic History of Inner Asia (to the 10th century)
  2. Medieval and Early Modern History of Inner Asia (10th century to 1750)
  3. Modern History of Inner Asia (1750 to the present)
  4. Philology and Religion of Pre-Islamic Inner Asia (to the 10th century)
  5. Philology and Religion of Medieval and Early Modern Inner Asia (10th century to 1750)
  6. Altaic or Tungusic Linguistics
  7. Archaeology and Art of Inner Asia
  8. Ethnology and Anthropology of Inner Asia


There will be a three-hour written examination in each of the three specified fields, plus one three-hour oral examination in Inner Asian studies, broadly defined. In some cases, students may, with the approval of the committee, choose to take an additional fourth general examination field.


Within one academic year of completing the general examination, students will be required to present a written prospectus of their dissertation, of at least five to ten pages in length, for approval by the committee.


The doctoral dissertation must demonstrate the candidate’s ability to use primary source material and to produce a piece of original research. After the acceptance of the dissertation, the candidate must defend his or her dissertation in a special oral examination. The final manuscript must conform to the requirements described in The Form of the PhD Dissertation.

Further information regarding IAAS programs of study can be obtained from the departmental website.

Argal Culture in Mongolian Nomadic Civilization

Delger (Professor, Inner Mongolia University Library)

Mongolian nomadic civilization has a long history stretching over thousands of years – a culture that has developed in line with the natural considerations of the weather, land and nature of the Mongolian plateau and has become an important part of human culture and an ideal example of an environmentally friendly and sustainable form of living. Modernization, industrialization, and development, on the other hand, have caused a great increase in environmental pollution, hastened global warming and led to the near exhausting of certain material resources, damaging the relationship between man and his environment. Yet, if human beings wish to live in harmony with nature, new and environmentally friendly means of energy generation are required in order to preserve and uphold the ecological balance.

Mongolian nomadic civilization is one example of an ancient culture that has centuries of experience with regard to the utilization of eco-friendly energy. The methods used by the Mongolian nomads are both scientific and relevant to our aims to safeguard our present ecosystem and revolve around the use of argal, a type of dried animal dung used as fuel, which is an excellent example of a means of energy generation that is not damaging to the environment and is, at the same time, renewable.

One Types of Argal and Green Fuel Invention

In Mongolian, dried cattle dung is called argal, of which there are many different kinds, depending on when it is collected. The frozen variety, collected in winter, is known as khuldegusu, that collected in spring is called habur-un argal, the summer variety is known as jun-u argal and the autumn variety as namur-un argal. In addition, the dung of goat and sheep is known as khorgusu, the dung of horses and donkeys is known as khomool and the dung that is collected and compressed in the sheep yard is known as urteng or sigeng. The most important of these in terms of daily nomadic life is the argal collected from cattle.

In most Mongolian areas, other forms of dung, such as khomool, from horses, or khorgool from sheep, goats and camels are also used to make argal, as well as the thick, compressed dung from the sheep yard, which is called urteng or sigeng. But in the end, cattle dung always remains the main resource of argal, because it has a larger volume and more density.

Over the course of the long history of nomadic production processes among the Mongols, they have invented and utilized a type of cheap, green fuel, which is both renewable and is favorable to the environment. It is part of the cultural heritage of the Mongols and also has value for today”s society. Argal is a waste byproduct of animal husbandry and one that can be easily collected, avoiding the need to cut down trees for wood or the need to mine coal and damage the earth and the soil. Argal is a truly green fuel that has no expensive production costs and is not harmful to the environment.

Two Characteristics of Argal Fire

The fire from argal has its own special characteristics.

1. It has a very low ignition point. Argal is easily ignited when it is wet or in low oxygen conditions. Only dry grass, dry twigs and wood crumbs are needed to ignite it.

2. Argal is a form of waste based on the grass eaten by animals, so the main components of argal consist of herbaceous materials and plant fibers. When it is burnt, there is no smoke and it may have a pungent smell and is light blue in color.

3. It burns with steady combustion for a long time and its fire is not as strong as that achieved with coal or wood, but it does still generate significant heat. Therefore, there is no danger of asphyxia when using it as a source of heat in confined spaces.

Three Usage of Argal Fire

The temperature of argal fire is well-suited for cooking, food processing, heating, making handcrafts and for certain industrial uses. The different kinds of food cooked on argal fires in Mongol areas are things such as traditional Mongolian meals and drinks, cooked cream, butter and fried millet – which all have their own unique flavor. The argal fire is also very good for heating the home. The argal fire has a longer burning duration, so fires set in the evening can burn right through to the following morning, and the fire is very suitable for maintaining temperature indoors. The long burning duration of argal fire is also good for fire banking. It is convenient to make the fire when getting up in the morning. The argal fire has a complete combustion, so there is less carbon dioxide and no damage of poisoning even in poor ventilation conditions.

Mongols not only use argal fires in their daily life, but also in industry. As the argal fire has a temperature of about 950-1000?C, the temperature is especially well-suited for manufacturing porcelain and clayware.

Four Medicinal Functions of Argal

The nomadic Mongols discovered that animal dung contained certain medicinal properties and could be used in a special medical treatment called the sebesulekhu method. The rumination matter in the animal dung is called sebesu in Mongolian. The word sebesulekhu denotes a kind of treatment in which the patient”s diseased organs are placed directly in the hot animal excrement. The sebesulge is a very ancient folk treatment and later became a very important surgical treatment in practical Mongolian medicine. This treatment is good for healing rheumatic diseases, arthropathy, women”s gonorrhea, broom symptom of sir-a usu and pulse diseases etc.

As the argal mostly consists of plant material, there are plenty of methyl carbonates or mixtures of KNO3. The methyl carbonate has functions of sterilization and killing bacteria. Argal has also been used in Mongolian veterinary science, too.

Five The Feed and Fertilizer Functions of Argal

Argal is also used as feed. According to experiments, it consists of proteins, crude fats, nitrogen-free extracts, crude fiber, coarse power and calcium. Almost of the protein in argal is a good digestion feed for non-ruminant animals.

The urteng or sigeng fertilizer: Mongols usually harvest urteng or sigeg fertilizer from the animal gardens of their winter herding places and put it into the field as a fertilizer. As urteng is an eco-friendly fertilizer which has a high nutritional value, the crops grown on urteng fertilized fields grow strong, with dark green stalks, better immunologic competence, draught resistance, good blossom and pollen acceptation, and excellent seedling. The rest of the dung on the pasturelands is decomposed by the sun, wind, rain or snow, or by dung beetles and is absorbed naturally as fertilizer into the soil.

The argal ash is used as a kind of alkaline fertilizer. The fertilizer has good functions of chlorine resistance; therefore, Mongols usually put potato seeds in the dry ash of argal before they plant the potato seeds in the field, as potatoes are not grown so well in soil rich in chlorine. The potassium can increase a plant”s oxygen supply, metabolism and synthesis and transmission of the saccharine, so that it helps the healthy growth of the plant bar, immunologic competence, resistance to natural disaster and its draught resistance. Therefore, it is very useful to animal husbandry and agricultural production. So argal or urteng or sigeng are real green fertilizers which are particularly well-suited for human health and environmental protection.

Six. The Significance of Argal Fuel

The argal fuel is often regarded as being somewhat laughable, or even as something simple, backward or dirty among some industrialized communities. On the contrary, to herding people, the argal is a kind of clean fuel for their traditional stove burning cultures and a symbol of a hot and warm life and indispensable energy resources for their daily life. A summary to the forgoing parts are as follows: in order to supply the different kinds of needs of everyday life, people have to breed livestock. A reasonable sized herd is good for preventing the grass or pasture from dying by subtilis grown in the previous year and hardening of the soil. Animal products are renewable. The discovery of the fuel of argal, not only solved the energy needs of the Mongols, but also decreased the dung covering the pasturelands, and prevented the necessity of cutting wood and destroying the forest, or digging coal mines and damaging the earth. The argal is also used as kind of feed or fertilizer, or used in medicine. It is a prime example of putting a waste product to good use. The circulation of “grass→animal→argal→heat→life→protection→grass” is a form of ecological circulation and has became a very scientific choice for life and production, in Mongolian nomadic civilization.

If we refer to the recycling truth of “grass→animal→argal→heat→life→protection→grass” in Mongolian nomadic civilization, we may begin to create a similar recycling truth of “the earth→coal and oil→energy→life and production→protection→the earth”, and we would save our planet from destruction, have a harmonious coexistence with nature so that we humans could exist healthily on this blue planet forever. Therefore, drawing lessons from and developing further study on the argal culture of Mongolian nomadic civilization is important for practical and long-term significance for saving the ecosystem in which we human beings exist.


The special collection of Altaic Literature in the SUB Göttingen

The Göttingen State and University Library houses one of the largest collections of  Altaic literature in Europe. Recent publications from the Altaic world are bought continuously. But the library has also got many old collections of Oriental literature. One of these historic collections is the “v. Asch-Sammlung”.

Georg Thomas v. Asch was born on April 12th, 1729 in St. Petersburg. His father originally came from Silesia and became a director of the postal service in St. Petersburg. At the age of 15 he went to Germany to study medicine at the University of Tübingen. He obtained his bachelor degree three years later and moved to Göttingen where he continued his studies and obtained his Doctor’s degree within another three years. He returned to St. Petersburg where he later became a member of the Medical Council under Kathrine the Great. 
During the Russian-Turkic war from 1768 to 1774 he followed the Russian army as the leading medical officer. During this war the plague broke out and v. Asch managed to contain the outbreak by isolating the infected persons, burying the dead immediately and other measures. He received high honours for his services, though incurring the displeasure of the Empress Cathrine the Great, when without her consent he had a medal struck in silver and bronze to celebrate himself as “liberator a peste”. He died in 1807. (1)

During his life he maintained  close contacts to his alma mata in Göttingen. In 1771 during the war with the Turks he started sending large boxes with handwritten and printed material, ethnological objects and other items of interest, like minerals, costumes, coins, maps, tea, stuffed animals etc. to Göttingen. More than 120 letters to Christian Gottlieb Heyne and more to other professors in Göttingen accompanied his gifts. During over thirty years more than 2000 printed books and over 250 manuscripts reached Göttingen. The Museum of Ethnography (“Völkerkundliche Sammlung”) of the University in Göttingen houses, apart from the famous James Cook collection, a large collection of ethnological objects depicting the life of the arctic peoples of Siberia and Alaska based mainly on the numerous gifts by v. Asch (2), whereas the manuscripts and books are kept in the Göttingen State and University Library (3). 

The large bulk of the manuscripts was collected by v. Asch during the Russian-Turkic war. Most are in the Arabic and Turkic language, some in Tatar and Persian, many richly illuminated. Several manuscripts in the Mongolian and Oirat language should also be mentioned, many of which were obtained via the members of the Herrenhut mission amongst the Oirats or Calmuck at Serapta at the banks of the river Volga. Some of the missionaries there learned the Oirat language and script. Hence a manuscript notebook by Justus Friedrich Malsch, containing several poems and observations about the Oirat people and language (Asch 143) and notes by Johannes Jährig are preserved in the v.Asch collection. Jährig later travelled widely amongst the more eastern Mongolian peoples, collected manuscripts for v. Asch and became the chief informant for Peter Simon Pallas (1741-1809), the famous traveller through Siberia, whose book on the Mongols “Sammlungen historischer Nachrichten über die Mongolischen Völkerschaften” (St. Petersburg 1776-1801) is mainly based on Jährig. Many of the books by Pallas have been digitized. (4) (5) 

1. Glitsch, Silke and Mittler, Elmar (eds.) : 300 Jahre St.Petersburg – Rußland und die Göttingische Seele, Göttingen 2003, p.287-322
2. (The ethnological collection: ) Siberia and Russian America : culture and art from the 1700s ; the Asch collection, Göttingen = Sibirien und Russisch-Amerika : Kultur und Kunst des 18. Jahrhunderts ; die Sammlung von Asch, Göttingen / ed. by Brigitta Hauser-Schäublin, Gundolf Krüger, München 2007
3. The catalogue of the v.Asch Collection at the State- and University Library in Goettingen has been published: Verzeichnis der Handschriften im Preussischen Staate 1 (Hannover), Part 1 (Die Handschriften in Göttingen), vol. 3 (Universitäts-Bibliothek : Nachlässe von Gelehrten, Orientalische Handschriften. Handschriften im Besitz von Instituten und Behörden) (ed. Wilhelm Meyer), Berlin 1894, p.22-75.
4. The Mongolian and Oirat documents have a description in: Verzeichnis der orientalischen Handschriften in Deutschland, vol.1 : Mongolische Handschriften, Blockdrucke, Landkarten : mit 16 Lichtdrucktafeln / beschrieben von Walther Heissig. Stuttgart 1961
5. Karlheinz Schweitzer,  Johann Jährig und seine Zeit : ein Büdinger forscht bei den Mongolen ; Büdingen : Geschichtswerkstatt Büdingen, 2008